Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln Loudspeaker.svg ? / eɪbrəhæm lIŋkən / ( Hodgenville , February 12 of 1809 – Washington , April 15 of 1865 ) was a politician U.S. . 16th U.S. president , a post he held from 4 March 1861 until his assassination in 15 April 1865 (following the shooting that John Wilkes Booth struck the day before the April 14, 1865), Lincoln led the country so successful during its greatest internal crisis, the American Civil War , preserving the Union and abolishing the slavery , the national government strengthening and modernizing the economy. Raised in a poor family on the western frontier, Lincoln was self-educated, became a lawyer, a leader of the Whig Party , State Representative of Illinois during the years of 1830 and member of the House of Representatives for one term during the 1840s.

After a series of debates in 1858 that reverberated around the country showing their opposition to slavery, Lincoln lost a race for the Senate to its archrival Stephen A. Douglas . Lincoln, a moderate from a swing state (swing state), secured the nomination for the presidential candidacy of 1860 by the Republican Party . With almost no support from the south of the country , he toured the North and was elected president . His election caused seven southern slave states declare assignment to the Union and formed the Confederate States of America . The break with the Southerners made the party of Lincoln obtain full control of Congress, but no action was made or reconciliation. In his second inaugural address, he explained that “both parties decried the war, but one fazeria war rather than allow the survival of the nation, and the other would accept war rather than let it perish, and the war came.”

When the North opted entusiasmente National Union after the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, Lincoln concentrated military and political efforts in the war. His goal this time was to unite the nation. How the South was in rebellion, Lincoln exercised his authority to suspend habeas corpus , arrest and detain temporarily thousands of separatist suspects without trial. Lincoln avoided recognition with the UK for the Confederates, having cleverly dealt with the conflict’s diplomatic incident Trent Affair in late 1861. His efforts for the abolition of slavery included the signing of the Act of Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, encouraging slaveholding border states (border states) to make slavery illegal, and giving impetus to Congress to pass the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution of United States , that finally ended slavery in December 1865. Lincoln ostensibly oversaw the war effort, especially important in the choice of generals, including the commanding general Ulysses S. Grant . [note 1] Lincoln met the leaders of the major factions of his party into his government and pressured them to cooperate. Under the leadership of Lincoln, the Union set up a naval blockade which closed the normal trade with the South, took control of the border states early in the war, gained control communications with gunboats on the river systems of the South and tried repeatedly to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond ( Virginia ). Every general who failed, Lincoln replaced them until finally Grant succeeded in 1865.

An exceptionally astute politician and deeply involved with power issues in each state, Lincoln supported the War Democrats [note 2] and got his reelection in 1864 . As the leader of a moderate faction of the Republican Party, Lincoln noted that their policies and personality were “blasted on all sides”: the “Radical Republicans” [note 3] demanded a harsh treatment with the South, War Democrats desired a greater commitment ( the “Copperheads,” Democratic members pacifists, despised party members who defended the conflict), and irreconcilable secessionists plotted her murder.

Historians have concluded that he was able to overcome the various factions of the Republican Party, negotiating the cooperation of leaders of each person in his office. Under his leadership, the Union gained control of the border slave states during the war, while he could be reelected in the presidential election of 1864 .

Political opponents and other opponents of the war criticized Lincoln for refusing to come to a common denominator on the issue of slavery. Conversely, the Radical Republicans, an abolitionist faction of the Republican Party, criticized the slow progress in the abolition of slavery. Even with these opponents, Lincoln managed to win over public opinion through his rhetoric and speeches, his Gettysburg Address in 1863, became an iconic symbol of the duties of his nation. In the final stages of the war, Lincoln had a moderate view of Reconstruction , seeking to reunite their country more quickly through a policy of generous reconciliation.

Six days after the large-scale surrender of Confederate forces under the command of General Robert E. Lee , Lincoln became the first U.S. President to be assassinated.

Biography
Early years

Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12th of 1809 , in Hardin County (Kentucky) , [3] now part of LaRue County , near the town of Hodgenville , Kentucky , son of Thomas Lincoln and Nancy Lincoln.
The house museum in Lincoln playing on his life

Little is known of his ancestors. Historical investigations strate that he was a relative of Samuel Lincoln , of Norfolk . [4] [3] Lincoln was the eldest son, and the laws of the time inherited the property from his father. [3]

He bought and sold several farms, including the Sinking Spring Farm . Her family was Baptist , [3] but Lincoln never belonged to any religion. Lincoln had 600 acres being divided into lots and farms. He became one of the richest men in the region. [5]

In 1816, his family lost all the property he had and moved to the state of Indiana , where Lincoln lived from seven to 21 years.

At nine years old, her mother died, aged 34. [3] His older sister, Sarah, died in childbirth. [3] Soon after, his father married Sarah Bush Johnston. [3]

In 1830 , the family settled on public land in Macon County . [3] In 1831 , he moved to Coles County . In the spring of 1831, had been hired to transport goods by the Illinois River and the Mississippi River . After arriving in New Orleans , saw slavery and returned to Illinois. [5]

His family and neighbors considered him lazy. [6] [3] Lincoln avoided hunting and fishing because he did not like killing animals. [5]
Statue of young Lincoln in Senn Park in Chicago .
Beginning of political career

His studies, in his own words, boiled down, this time, to know how to read, write and do the four operations. In the state there was a shortage of books and paper and the Bible was probably the only existing book at home from their parents. Lincoln studied it thoroughly, coming later to enrich their writings and speeches with biblical quotations. In 1831, Lincoln moved alone to the village of New Salem in the state of Illinois, using as a store clerk. In New Salem, where he lived for nearly six years, became postmaster and later was elected by Illinois ( the 1,834th – one thousand eight hundred forty ) and member of the Senate (1844-1848).

During his second term in the Assembly, Lincoln began to study law and completed his training. Took borrowed books, studied them and, in 1836, obtained a license to practice law. The following year he moved to the new state capital, Springfield, where, along with others, formed a law firm. In 1842 , he married Mary Todd . Two years later, he set up a new office in partnership with William Herndon . This society was never undone. The practice of law in Illinois was not specialized in the time of Lincoln. For six months each year, Lincoln incorporated the itinerant state courts covering several municipalities and accepting the cases that were presented. His performance as a lawyer made him known throughout Illinois. In 1846 , he was elected to the federal House of Representatives.

From 1847 to 1849, Lincoln served in Congress, where he became unpopular because of opposition to the president that made ​​James K. Polk , blaming him for the war with Mexico . Given up trying to re-election and returned to practice. A sudden change in national policy regarding slavery brought Lincoln back into politics. The Agreement of Missouri prohibited in 1820 , slavery in the new territories north of Missouri’s southern border. In 1854 , Senator Stephen A. Douglas introduced a bill to organize the territories of Kansas and Nebraska to Missouri repelled the agreement, stating that the colonists should decide whether they wanted to or not slavery. Lincoln was opposed to this law. In 1858, vying for a seat in the Senate with Douglas, Lincoln challenged him to a series of debates on the extension of slavery in free territories. Lincoln lost the election, but became a figure of national prominence, thus enabling his candidacy for the presidency in 1860 , this performance has been also related with the founding of the Republican Party of the United States in 1854. In 1860, the National Assembly introduced him as Republican candidate for the presidency of the nation.
The Government Lincoln
Official Portrait of Abraham Lincoln

The march of events accelerated in the South during the months leading up to the inauguration of President Lincoln. Several leaders of the South had threatened to withdraw their states from the Federation if Lincoln won the elections. When he took office in March 1861, seven southern states had withdrawn and four more did the same later. These states formed, then the Confederate States of America . Despite having brought an extraordinary effort of conciliation, his choice election for that office caused the outbreak of the American Civil War . On April 12th, the Confederates bombarded the fort Sumter . Lincoln faced the crisis with energy: decreed the blockade of Southern ports and increased the army beyond the limits imposed by law. After losing the first battles, the northerners eventually win the war, which lasted four years and left a toll of 600,000 dead. Despite initial failures and consequent unpopularity, Lincoln never left disheartened. For him, the U.S. accounted for an experience of the capacity of a people to govern themselves. On September 22 of 1862 issued a proclamation granting freedom to slaves of the Confederate States. In the eyes of other nations, the release gave a new meaning to the war and paved the way for the abolition of slavery throughout the country in 1865 . In 1864 , the victories of Northerners allowed the reelection of Lincoln, whose new term began the following year.
Murder
The assassination of Abraham Lincoln. From left to right: Henry Rathbone, Clara Harris, Mary Todd Lincoln, Abraham Lincoln and John Wilkes Booth.

John Wilkes Booth , a well-known actor and spy Confederate of Maryland , originally formulated a plan to kidnap Lincoln in exchange for the release of Confederate prisoners. After witnessing a speech on April 11 in which Lincoln promised voting rights for blacks , an incensed Booth changed his mind, now determined to assassinate the president. [7]

On April 14th of 1865 , when he learned that the President and First Lady would attend a play at Ford’s Theatre , he has continued his plans, combining with the murder accomplices simultaneous Vice President Andrew Johnson and Secretary of State William Henry Seward . Without his bodyguard principal, Ward Hill Lamon, to whom he would have reported a dream that predicted three days before his death, Lincoln left the White House to witness the staging of the play Our American Cousin at Ford, accompanied in his cabin by Major Henry Rathbone and his fiancée Clara Harris.

While a lone security guarding the surroundings and Lincoln remained in his cabin, Booth crept into the room and waited for a particularly funny moment during the play, hoping the laughter of the audience abafassem the noise of the shot. Just when Booth entered the box and fired point blank its Deringer .44 caliber – single shot against the head of the President. Major Rathbone momentarily struggled with Booth, but was subdued when he suffered a deep cut to dagger in arm . The killer then jumped on stage and shouted Sic semper tyrannis! ( Latin : “This always happens to tyrants”) and escaped, despite a broken leg during the jump. [8] The President died the next day, day 15 April 1865, the Petersen House, where he was taken after the attack, the first U.S. President assassinated during his tenure.

A twelve-day manhunt began with Booth chased by federal agents under the direction of Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton . He was finally cornered and shot in a barn in Virginia , dying of his wounds shortly afterwards. [8]

Abraham Lincoln was buried in Oak Ridge Cemetery , Springfield , Illinois in the United States .

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