African-american

African american, african-American or African-American designations are for citizens of the United States descendants of Africans . These designations only began to be used in the years 80 , when the black consciousness movement began to adopt a policy of unity of all African Diaspora .

Another designation is considered politically correct color black (the term in English black). Since the term niger was the term used before the years 60 , with a pejorative connotation.

In the 2010 census, nearly 40 million Americans reported being black, african-American or Hispanic blacks.

History

Most african-Americans are descendants of slaves who were brought from Africa to North America and the Caribbean between 1609 and 1807 , during the slave trade , most of which came in the eighteenth century . Most of it was originated in West Africa and Central Africa . A minority is of recent origin, and immigrants from Africa , the Caribbean , in Central America and South America . [7]

The first record of the presence of Africans in British America refers to the year 1619 , on condition of unpaid workers in Jamestown (Virginia) . How many colonists were dying due to adverse conditions to which they were subjected, gradually increased the importation of African workers. For many years, Africans were legally in a position similar to the English colonists poor, since many English settlers had to work for free in exchange for passage to America. [8] The Africans raised families, marrying other Africans and sometimes mingled with Indians and Englishmen. [9] A conception of racial slavery only fully developed in the eighteenth century . By 1775, Africans accounted for 20% of the population of the Thirteen Colonies , making them the second largest ethnic group after the English. [10] By 1860, there were 3.5 million slaves in the United States and 500,000 african- free Americans. [11] In 1863, during the American Civil War , President Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation, which declared that all slaves were free. [12]
Racism

The african American congregations have created for them, such as schools, community and civic associations, to have their own space to escape the control and supervision of whites. After the Civil War, there was a period of progress for african Americans, but in the 1890s the southern states enacted the Jim Crow Laws to strengthen racial segregation . [13] In the last decade of the nineteenth century , discriminatory laws and violence racial began to swarm in the United States. These discriminatory acts included racial segregation, with places reserved only for white patrons and others just for blacks, abolition of voting and other rights in general, denial of economic opportunity or resources nationwide, and private acts of violence and of racial violence were ignored or even encouraged by government authorities. The period was marked by intolerance and the organization of groups like the Ku Klux Klan . From the 1940s , the african-Americans organized themselves to fight for their rights, there arise important figures like Martin Luther King . Racial discrimination in law was only abolished definitely in 1965 , through the “Voting Rights Act” which prohibited the suppression of the black vote. [14]
Who is african american?

With the advent of discriminatory laws, it was necessary to define who was black in the United States. It was applied to ” one-drop rule “(” one drop rule “) which said that anyone with any African ancestry, although very small, was considered black. The state of Tennessee adopted the “one drop rule” in 1910, followed by Louisiana . After Texas and Arkansas in 1911, Mississippi in 1917, North Carolina in 1923, Virginia in 1924, Alabama and Georgia in 1927, Oklahoma in 1931. Before that, the mestizos were legally treated as a different group of blacks. Many mestizos who “looked white” were legally absorbed into the white population. In Virginia, the law defined a ” mulatto “was a person who had at least one quarter of African descent (equivalent to one grandparent). [15] But in 1924 this concept had already been dropped because a person with any African ancestry was considered black. Thus, Americans, even though they had obvious African features, are considered to be black, like the actress Lena Horne . [16] To avoid being victims of discrimination, some people who had no black lines evident, but they had ancestry African, began to hide their origins. It is the phenomenon known as “passing” (“passing”), whereby some Americans managed to hide their origins and were assimilated into the white population. For example, the cartoonist George Herriman was a family creole of Louisiana and their parents were classified as “mulatto” in the 1880 census. However, as blacks were not accepted in their professional environment, which he had invented ancestry Greek to justify its appearance and managed to “pass” a lifetime as “white”. [17] Other American white appearance, however, took with pride a black identity. For example, Walter Francis White , who was blonde with blue eyes, but had some African ancestry, became an activist for the civil rights of african-American and was considered “black”. [18]

The U.S. president, Barack Obama , is the son of an African father and white mother, but is considered black. [19] [20] Singer Mariah Carey , who is the daughter of a white mother of origin Irish and father african – Venezuelan stated: “In this country (USA) I’m black”. [21] However, the racial views of Americans have changed in recent years and moving away from the concept of “one drop rule”. In a 2006 survey, after being told that Obama’s father was black and mother white, was asked to african-Americans, whites and Hispanics about which race they thought that then Senator Barack Obama fit. 66% of african-Americans said Obama is black, while only 9% of Hispanics and 8% of whites gave the same answer. 61% of Hispanics and 55% of whites said that Obama is “bi-racial”. The same question was asked about the player golf Tiger Woods , whose mother is Thai and her father descended from blacks, Indians and whites. 42% of african-Americans said that Woods is black, compared with 9% of Hispanics and 7% of whites. 40% of african-Americans, 39% of Hispanics and 27% of whites said that he is “bi-racial” and 55% of whites, 49% of Hispanics and 18% of african-Americans said that he is “multiracial.” [22] Woods himself identifies himself as “cablinasian” (a combination of the words white, black, Indian and Asian). [23]

In recent years the number of Americans who identify themselves as “mestizo” or mixed with an ancestry has increased. This was reflected in the U.S. Census. In 2000, the first time the Americans were able to choose more than one “race” with which they identified. For the twenty-first century it is estimated that marriages between people of “races” will grow different, and this has been reflected in the very perception of racial Americans. [24]

Currently, the majority of Americans show themselves favorable to unions between persons of “races” different. According to a survey, over 50% of Americans said they have dated someone of a “race” than yours. The rate is lower among whites, mainly because most of them inhabit places where most of the population is white. But when they move to areas with more diverse population, the rates increase. 17% of white teens in school dated a black person, 33% have dated a Hispanic and an Asian 15%. About 38% of african-Americans have dated some 10% Hispanic and one Asian. About 80% of whites said they would not have problems in dating a person of a “race” than yours. The younger the U.S. is more open to interracial relationships he is. Currently, 65% of Americans born before 1946 say accept dating between whites and blacks. Among baby boomers , 84% support interracial dating. For those born between 1965-1976, 87% accept the practice. The resistance was greater among whites: from 1987 to 1988, only 44% of whites said that they accepted interracial relationships, while the rate doubled and currently over 80% of whites say they accept. During the 1980s, about 74% of african-Americans agreed with interracial dating. Currently, 97% of african-Americans agree. The influx of immigrants from diverse backgrounds in the United States have changed the mentality of American society and racial lines have been less evident. However, barriers remain. In South Carolina, a university forbade interracial dating until 2000. In 2001, 40% of Alabama voters were against the withdrawal of the ban on interracial marriage was still written into the state constitution. [25]
Religion
The presenter Oprah Winfrey was for many years the only black female billionaire in the world. [26] Some consider it to be the most influential woman in the world. [27] [28]

The majority of african Americans are Protestants . According to a 2007 survey, more than half of african-Americans are part of so-called “black churches” that are historical churches where most of the patrons are black. [29] About 5% are Catholics .
Genetic

Based on genetic research, the ancestry of african-Americans was described as follows:

58% of african-Americans have at least 12.5% ​​European ancestry (equivalent of one great-grandfather);
19.6% of african-Americans have at least 25% European ancestry (equivalent to one grandparent);
1% of african-Americans have at least 50% European ancestry (equivalent of one parent), and
5% of african-Americans have at least 12.5% ​​of indigenous ancestry (equivalent of one great-grandfather). [30]

The most significant genetic study done on african-american population analyzed the Y sex chromosome (present only in males), which is passed from generation to generation, from father to son. We also analyzed the DNA mitochondrial passed from mother to child. The Y chromosome and mtDNA provide complementary information, allowing trace patrilineages and matrilineages reaching tens of generations in the past, so you can reconstruct the genetic history of a people. [31]

The study found that the majority of black Americans have 80% of their ancestry Saharan Africa . The other 20% are mostly coming from mixture with Europeans and with a little indigenous . [32]

Genetic research has included famous african-Americans: the presenter Oprah Winfrey has been submitted for analysis and discovered that his ancestry is 89% African, 8% Native American , 3% Asian and 0% European. The study also pointed out that Oprah is descended from slaves brought from that today would be Liberia and Zambia . [33]
Demographics

In 1790 , the african Americans were 700,000 people-about 19% of the U.S. population. In 1860, there were already 4.4 million-about 14%. In 1900 , it reached 8.8 million crifra.

In 1910 , about 90% of african-Americans lived in the South of the United States, but a large number of people started to migrate to the more developed north. The Great Migration, as it was called, lasted from the 1890s to the 1970s . Between 1916 and 1960 , 6 million blacks migrated north.

By 1990, the population of african-american reached 30 million people, representing 12% of the U.S. population. Currently, according to sources in 2005 , there are 39.9 million african-Americans, representing 13.8% of the U.S. population. In the census of 2000 , 54.8% of African Americans lived in the South of the United States, 17.6% in the Northeast, 18.7% in the Midwest and only 8.9% in the West. About 88% of African descent lived in metropolitan areas in 2000 .

The city of New York has the largest black population in the country with 2 million people, representing about 20% of its total population.

The United States, along with Brazil , has one of the largest black population outside of Africa .
Famous African Americans
Michael Jackson made history in music and international across the globe as the “King of Pop”.

Barack Obama, first african-American elected President of the United States .
The singer Beyoncé .

Aaliyah , singer and actress [34]
Afroman , rapper
Akon , singer
Alfre Woodard , actress
Alfonso Ribeiro , actor
Angela Bassett , actress
Angela Davis , activist and socialist philosopher
Antoine Fuqua , director
Aretha Franklin , singer
Barack Obama , politician, current President of the United States .
Beyonce Knowles , singer and actress
BB King , musician
Bill Cosby , actor and comedian
Carl Lewis , athlete olympic medalist
Charles Barkley , a basketball player
Chris Brown , singer
Chris Gardner , broker and entrepreneur
Chris Rock , actor and comedian
Chris Tucker , actor
Cicely Tyson , actress
Colin Powell , political
Condoleezza Rice , political
Cuba Gooding Jr. , actor
Cullen Jones swimmer
Danny Glover , actor
Damon Wayans , comedian and actor
Dennis Rodman , actor and athlete (basketball)
Denzel Washington , actor
Diahann Carroll , actress and singer
Diana Ross , actress and singer
DJ Kool Herc , DJ touted as creator of culture Hip hop
DJ Jazzy Jeff , Jeffrey A.Townes, Musico
Don Cheadle , actor
Donna Summer , singer
Dorothy Dandridge , actress and singer
Eddie Murphy , actor and comedian
Elijah Muhammad , religious leader and activist
Ella Fitzgerald , singer
Evander Holyfield , boxer
Forest Whitaker , actor
Frederick Douglass , political
Gary Coleman , comedian
George Foreman , boxer
George Washington Carver , botanist
Gordon Parks , filmmaker
Halle Berry , actress
Harriet Tubman , abolitionist
Hattie McDaniel , actress and singer
Ice Cube , rapper, actor and producer
Ice T , rapper named as creator of Gangsta rap
Jada Pinkett Smith , actress
Jaden Smith , Actor
James Avery , actor
James Brown , singer
James Earl Jones , actor
Jamie Foxx , actor and singer
Janet Jackson , actress and singer [35]
Jay-Z , singer
Janet Hubert-Whitten , actress
Jennifer Hudson , actress and singer
Jimi Hendrix , guitarist
John Singleton , director and screenwriter
Joseph Marcell , actor and comedian
Kareem Abdul Jabbar , basketball player
karyn Parsons , actress
Karl Malone , basketball player
Kobe Bryant , basketball player
Laurence Fishburne , actor
LeBron James , basketball player
Lionel Richie , singer
Louis Armstrong , singer
Louis Farrakhan , leader of the Nation of Islam
Louis Gossett Jr. , actor
Magic Johnson , basketball player
Malcolm X , political activist
Martin Luther King Jr. , pastor and political activist
Martin Lawrence , actor
Maya Angelou , poet
Michael Jackson , musician, humanitarian
Michael Jordan , basketball player
Mike Tyson , boxer
Miles Davis , trumpeter
Morgan Freeman , actor
Muhammad Ali , boxer
Nat King Cole , singer
Natalie Cole , singer
Ne-Yo , singer
Nicki Minaj , singer
OJ Simpson , football player
Oprah Winfrey , host and actress
Ossie Davis , producer and screenwriter
Prince , singer
Patrick Ewing , basketball player
Queen Latifah , actress and singer
Quincy Jones , music producer and film
Raven-Symoné , singer and actress
Ray Charles , singer
Richard Pryor , comedian and actor
Ronnie Coleman , bodybuilder
Rosa Parks , political activist
Ruby Dee , actress
Samuel L. Jackson , actor
Scottie Pippen Basketball Player
Serena Williams , tennis player
Shaquille O’Neal , basketball player
Sidney Poitier , actor
Snoop Dogg , rapper and actor
Spike Lee , director and screenwriter
Stevie Wonder , singer
Sugar Ray Leonard , boxer
Tatyana Ali , actress and singer
Terrence Howard , actor
Terry Crews , an actor, comedian and former football player
The Notorious BIG , singer
Tiger Woods , golfer
Tina Turner , actress and singer
Tyra Banks , model and presenter
Toni Morrison , writer
Toni Braxton , singer and actress [36]
Tupac Amaru Shakur , singer and actor
Vivica A. Fox , actress
Venus Williams , tennis player
Wesley Snipes , actor
Will Smith , actor and singer
Willow Smith , actress and singer
Whitney Houston , actress and singer
Whoopi Goldberg , actress and comedian
50 Cent , rapper
Usher , Singer

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