Alfonso XIII of Spain

Alfonso XIII of Spain (full name: Alfonso León Fernando María Jaime Isidro Pascual Antonio de Borbon y Habsburg-Lorraine; Madrid , May 17 of 1886 – Rome , February 28 of 1941 ) was King of Spain between 1886 and 1931 .

Alfonso was the posthumous son of King Alfonso XII of Spain and Maria Cristina of Hapsburg-Lorraine . Was proclaimed king at the time of his birth and his mother was regent during his minority. In 1902 , at the age of 16, was declared of age and assumed the duties of head of state.

His reign was marred by the collapse of the Spanish colonial empire , by great popular uprisings that led to the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera , and culminated in the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic to April 14 of 1931 , and the exile of the king.

However, during World War I , Alfonso XIII organized as monarch of a country neutral , a valuable initiative that allowed contacting the prisoners of war of both parties with their families.

Tragedy in marriage
Alfonso XIII, 1901

On May 31 of 1906 , King Alfonso XIII of Spain married Princess British Victoria Eugenia of Battenberg (1887-1969), daughter of Henry of Battenberg and Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom , thus niece of King Edward VII and granddaughter of Queen Victoria .

When Alfonso XIII and Queen Victoria Eugenia returned to the royal palace after the wedding, suffered an attack to bomb thrown by an anarchist Mateo Morral , which were unharmed by little. As a result of the explosion, but were killed or injured many people attending the procession, as well as members of the royal entourage.
The fall of the Spanish colonial empire

During the reign of Alfonso XIII, but still during the regency of Maria Cristina, Spain lost its last overseas possessions of Cuba , Puerto Rico and the Philippines during the Spanish-American War in 1898 . Already in the twentieth century , triggered once again the war in northern Morocco , a country which was at that time a protectorate Spanish, putting into question the continuation of the Spanish colonial empire . The city of Melilla has temporarily lost its dominance Spanish military.
The dictatorship of Primo de Rivera
Main article: Dictatorship of Primo de Rivera
Seal with the effigy of Alfonso XIII and overloading of the Spanish Republic

In part due to these losses, Spain suffered numerous social upheavals in its major cities, which led to the captain general of Catalonia , Miguel Primo de Rivera, organize a coup to September 13 of 1923 , which was protected by the Alfonso XIII, who commissioned him to form a new government, despite having been dissolved parliament and suspended the constitution . He formed a government, and called the directory, which initially consisted exclusively of military (military directory), but later had a civilian (civil directory). During the dictatorship ended the War of Morocco with the landing of Alhucemas in 1925 , which allowed the conquest of the region of Rif by Spain in 1927 .

In 1929 there was the Universal Exposition in Barcelona and Iberoamericana in Seville , and the growing popular opposition to the dictator, with special participation of students, intellectuals and artillery corps caused Alfonso XIII resign Primo de Rivera’s government to 29 January of 1930 appointing General Damaso Berenguer as president of the council of ministers, with the intention of returning to constitutional rule.

However, with the fall of the dictator, increased antimonárquicas demonstrations, in which he accused the monarch of protecting the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera and having responsibility in the Annual Disaster , when Spain had lost control of Melilla. So the republican parties united against the monarchy by signing the Pact of San Sebastián , and tried surveys that were frustrated by the military government in Madrid and in Jaca , (the latter headed by Fermín Galán and Ángel García Hernández who were shot after be tried on war council ). In February 1931 , Admiral Juan Bautista Aznar was appointed chairman by Alfonso XIII and called municipal elections for April 12 of 1931 . In these elections were winning the Republican candidates and the April 14 , was proclaimed the Second Spanish Republic . The king left the country that day, denying head of state, but without formally abdicate.
Alfonso XIII by Jose Navas-Parejo.

During his exile , Alfonso XIII resided in several places, although he spent the last years of his life in Rome . The January 15 of 1941 renounced the throne in favor of his son Juan , Count of Barcelona (his two older children had already renounced the succession).

The Count of Barcelona renounced his rights to the throne in 1977 in favor of his son Juan Carlos, who had been appointed king in 1975, with the death of Francisco Franco , under the Ley de la Sucesión Headquarters del Estado of 1947 . With the resignation of their rights by the Count of Barcelona, ​​was recovered the historical legitimacy of the monarchy, in accordance with Article 57 of the Spanish constitution .

Voiceless XIII died on February 28 of 1941 in the Gran Hotel de Rome due to angina pectoris .

When he died, the Spanish government declared three days of national mourning . [1] His funeral was held in Rome in the church of Santa Maria degli Angeli , but was buried in the church of Santa Maria in Monserrato , the Spanish national church in Rome, at the tombs of Pope Calixtus III and Pope Alexander VI . [2] In January 1980 his grandson, King Juan Carlos I , ordered its translocation to the Pantheon de los reyes, the Monastery of the Escorial in Spain, where it was held one salvo of weapons of 21 shots for the honor. [3]

Alfonso XIII of Spain and his wife had seven children:

Afonso ( one thousand nine hundred and seven – 1938th ) (abdicated the throne in 1933)
Jaime ( the 1908th – one thousand nine hundred seventy-five ) (abdicated the throne in 1933)
Beatriz ( 1909 – 2,002th )
Fernando ( 1910 )
Maria Cristina ( 1911th – in 1996 )
John ( one thousand nine hundred thirteen – one thousand nine hundred and ninety-three ) (father of the current King Juan Carlos I )
Gonçalo ( one thousand nine hundred and fourteen – 1934th )

Alfonso XIII still had three children extra-marital:

Roger Leveque de Vilmorin ( 1905 – the 1,980th ), French aristocrat with Mélanie of Gaufridy of Dortan;
Leandro Alfonso Ruiz Moragas (born 1929 ) and officially recognized by the Spanish government to May 21 of 2003 as King’s son, named Leandro Alfonso de Borbón Ruiz and
Ana María Teresa Ruíz Moragas , both sons of Spanish actress Carmen Ruiz Moragas.

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