Costa Concordia

The Costa Concordia is a post-Panamax – cruise ship and was at the time of entry into the largest Italian cruise ship. It is part of the Italian cruise line Costa Crociere , which is part of the British-American and the world’s largest cruise operator Carnival Corporation & plc is. The ship collided on 13 January 2012 off the island of Giglio in the Mediterranean with a rock, sprang a leak and is currently at around 65 degrees [7] flip side, just north of the small harbor of the island due.

Ship Dimensions and Features

The lead ship of the Concordia class , with 114,147 gross tonnage measured. The area ratio is about 30 GT / passenger (compared to Queen Mary 2 : about 48 GT / passenger Ruby Princess : about 37 GT / passenger Oasis of the Seas : about 37.5 GT / passenger). The shipping company operates three ships of this class, a fourth is under construction. Of the other ships of the Concordia class is only the sister ship Costa Serena largely identical with the Costa Concordia.

The colorful interior design was based on the countries of Europe, whereby the decks were named. The establishment led the American designer Joseph Farcus from the all new Costa ships since the Costa Atlantica and most Carnival ships designed. The ship was home at the time of completion of the world’s largest wellness center on board a ship. For the first time on a cruise ship, there was a hydraulic Formula 1 simulator that could be used for a fee.
History
Construction and maiden voyage in 2006

The Costa Concordia was on 8 November 2004 with the hull number 6122 on the Italian shipyard Fincantieri in Sestri Ponente on keel down and swam on 2 September 2005 at the dry dock on. On 29 June 2006 it was delivered to the then biggest Italian cruise ship to the shipping company Costa Crociere. The christening of the ship took place on 7 July 2006 in the port of Civitavecchia place godmother was the Czech supermodel Eva Herzigová . [8] When the bottle is shattered, the sailors present were horrified because they were subject to the as a bad omen. [9] The maiden voyage began on 15 . July 2006 in Savona .
Between Fall 2008

While violent squalls the ship rammed on 22 November 2008 at the entrance to the port of Palermo , the port facilities. The Costa Concordia was slightly damaged.
Filming 2010

2010, the ship served as a backdrop for the film Socialisme, a socio-critical film by Jean-Luc Godard . [10]
accident in 2012
course of events
The reason lies on the Costa Concordia, in the foreground some rescue boats in the harbor of Giglio
The damaged hull. The hull is still a piece of the rock, which collided with the ship.
Collision point (bottom) and final position (center) of the Costa Concordia off the island of Giglio
The final positions of the Costa Concordia

The Costa Concordia ran on 13 January 2012 around 19 clock local time ( CET ) from the port of Civitavecchia out. She was under the command of Captain Francesco Schettino on a cruise through the western Mediterranean on the way to Savona , where they then Marseille , Barcelona , Palma and Cagliari Palermo should start. The Costa Concordia was equipped with all the standard navigation systems such as multiple radar, sonar, satellite navigation systems and digital charts. [11]
The Scole rocks (flat stones, li.) Southeast of Giglio Porto

The island lies on the route of Giglio happens to be very close to the east coast. According to reports from passengers and the data from the Automatic Identification System (AIS) crashed the ship after a course change maneuvers against 21:45 clock with an exposed rock. [12] [13] [14] The Voyage Data Recorder (VDR) of the vessel registered to the collision time to 21:45 clock and 7 seconds [15] and the collision point at the position 42 ° 21 ’41 “N, 10 ° 55′ 50″ E in its immediate vicinity is a rock that is the Le Scole reef in front . [16] [17] Le Scole is located just southeast of the village of Giglio Porto in the immediate vicinity country. [18] On 16 January divers searched the Carabinieri after the collision point. On a rock, which is the island Scola piccola upstream, found and photographed them in about eight meters deep brass strip and sanding marks. This point is about 95 meters from the coastline. [19] [20]

In the port side of the ship gapes a 70 m long crack. Clearly visible in images is a great piece of rock several meters, which is in the trunk. According to the fire department is also on the starboard side of the ship damage to the hull. The applicable building codes required in the year that if a leak to twelve meters in length the stability of the ship must not be compromised. [21] According to the Technical Officer of the Costa Concordia five departments were already flooded shortly after the collision, was ship’s stability However, secured only up to two flooded compartments. [22] [23]

Captain Schettino describes itself as trying to control the port of Giglio Island after water had entered the ship to facilitate the recovery and prevent an even greater catastrophe. From the analysis of the VDR and the voice recordings however, it results that the vessel was no longer manoeuvrable few minutes after the collision, since the engine rooms were flooded. [24] At the time of the accident in Grand dell’Argentario blew a wind from the northeast with about strength 4 [25] This is also a simulation of the Maritime Simulation Centre Warnemünde , which indicates that the ship motion is caused by the collision to final position randomly by wind and currents. [26] The GPS data indicate that a ship moving after the collision off the island coast in a loop towards the harbor before it was contrary to the original direction of travel to its end position. [27] The two bow anchors were only in this position. The ship is since then with about 65 degrees flip side to the position 42 ° 21 ’57 “N, 10 ° 55′ 18″ E due. [7]

Many of the approximately 3,200 passengers of the Costa Concordia were having dinner when the cruise ship ran aground. A strong impact had shaken the vessel’s passengers. Initially (at 21:54) said the ship’s command of a problem with the power supply. At 22:30 the horn signal for evacuation of the ship was given and against 22:36, passengers were asked to remove their life jackets and to go on the boat deck. [28] Some travelers jumped during the rescue operation overboard and swam ashore, as the island of Giglio is located a few hundred meters from the crash site. The water temperature in the surrounding sea was time to unhappiness about 14 ° C. [29]

On board the accident date was 4229 people, of which about 1,000 crew members. [30] Among the passengers were about 1,000 Italians, 566 German, 160 French, 111 Russians, 69 Swiss, 77 Austrians – among them the mayor of Salzburg , Heinz Schaden [ 31] -., and 120 Americans [32] Among the passengers were also some wheelchair users. [33]
Rescue and victims
Life rafts and ladders on the port side of the Costa Concordia
Rescued passengers waiting in Giglio Porto on a passage to the mainland
The fireboat VF M07 in Giglio Porto on the morning of 14 January. In the background, empty lifeboats and the wrecked Costa Concordia can be seen.

Once the relevant control center Capitaneria di Porto Livorno (part of the Coast Guard Guardia Costiera had experienced) at 22:06 clock at random from the accident, and this was confirmed in a conversation with the ship at 22:14 clock – but initially only as a power failure – , were gradually sent to all available units of the Coast Guard and other agencies. The first boat, the G104 of the Guardia di Finanza was at 22:39 clock on the spot and was approved by the regional control center to coordinate search and rescue ( MRSC ) in Livorno to the On-Scene Commander (see IAMSAR ) nominated. Furthermore, all three of the companies were already island ferries from about 23 clock Toremar and Maregiglio in use and from 00:20 clock by turns eight helicopters, including two Sea-King – SAR machines of the Aeronautica Militare . Also two large ferries located in the area and several other ships came to help. [34] In an excerpt from the diary of the radio MRSC for the period between 13 January 14 at 22:00 clock and the January at 06:00 clock many details of application are eight documented. [34]

Most of the passengers and crew members were taken to the few hundred yards distant island of Giglio in lifeboats and the come to the aid of ships. As the cruise ship got more and more flip side, the helicopters were used directly for the rescue. Rescue teams reported that they had saved up to 150 people from the sea and brought ashore. The ship was completely evacuated until around 4:45 clock. According to regulations of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) evacuations in 80 minutes should be possible [35] However, this applies for exercises on a ship intact. In the dark with a thermal imaging camera from a helicopter captured video of the Coast Guard shows the port wall of lying almost on the aisle in a long line of people standing, waiting to get a let down rescue ladder into the hurrying boats. [36 ] Since all passengers could not be accommodated on the island of Giglio, they brought the ferry with all available nearby ports during the night many rescued after Porto Santo Stefano on the mainland. [34]

After completion of the actual rescue operation were in the course of 15 January you rescued three survivors from the ship’s hull, about 50 people were reported missing at this time. [37] Around 30 people were injured. 12 people still died during the rescue operation or were found dead in the sea. [38] For those looking for the victims also was underwater robot used. [39] During the search operation until the end of January five bodies were found until end of March 2012 were thirteen more victims discovered in the wreckage. Thus, the number of bodies found amounts to 30 in mid-April all were identified. [40] Two people are still missing. [41] [42] Among the total of 32 victims are probably twelve German, seven Italians, six French, two Peruvians, two U.S. citizens and an Indian, a Spaniard and a Hungarian. [43]

The passengers were served in schools, hotels and churches. The Italian press has highlighted the use of Gigliesen, both in the actual rescue and later in the supply of the shipwrecked. Since the island of Giglio has a total of only about 1,400 residents, short-term shelter several thousand people was not easy. Some passengers reported that they had to climb into the lifeboats without their shoes and then got passed by residents of the island shoes. Other passengers reported that they had pressed them without further money for the trip back to the hand. [44] On 1 June 2012 was the residents of Giglio island through the president of the Tuscany region, the silver banner of the Tuscany region awarded on the grounds that they had “with their bold and solidarity of the hard blow that the behavior of the captain has done her country redressed,” . [45]
Investigations
Nightly search for survivors on the 14th January 2012

Captain Francesco Schettino and his first officer , Ciro Ambrosio, are next to the suspicion of negligent homicide and bringing about a shipwreck (in Italy a new criminal offense) alleged to have left the ship only hours before the completion of the evacuation. [46] Schettino was to his hearing at the request of the Italian prosecutor’s office in Grosseto remanded in custody on 17 January following the remand, however, subject to conditions (house arrest) released. [47] The house arrest in a review by a higher court in Florence on 6 Confirmed in February 2012. [48] On 22 February has extended the public prosecutor of Grosseto, the investigation of three employees of the cruise line (Vice President Manfred Ursprunger, crisis team manager Roberto Ferrarini and Fleet Superintendent Paolo Parodi) and four deck officers (Andrea Bongiovanni, Roberto Bosio, Silvia Coronica and Salvatore Ursino). [49] also they are accused of negligent homicide, bringing about a shipwreck and failure to inform the authorities. A preliminary hearing in the litigation took place on 3 March 2012 held in a theater in Grosseto. The charges against the captain were added to the damage to protected areas. Furthermore, the list of questions to be answered by the evaluation of the voyage data recorder, discussed and defined. [50] As of 9 March 2012, the various recording devices were examined by experts under supervision. [51] The final evidence Event was held on 15 October also held in Grosseto, 2012. Large parts of the report have been presented previously leaked to Italian newspapers and on the Internet. [11] [52]

According to his testimony at the habeas Schettino chose the nearby course to greet his former colleagues Terenzio Mario Palombo, [53] with whom he telephoned during the maneuver – the but according to their own statement was not on the island. He had already done this several times, but I turned too late this time. In a first interview, Schettino had declared the rock was not marked on the chart. According to media reports announced the sister of the head waiter Antonello Tievoli on the social network Facebook that the Costa Concordia will soon pass very close. [54] The multiple density passing the island of Giglio by Costa ships in 2011 is evidenced by photos and videos. [55] [56] , the mayor of Giglio thanked Also in 2011, the then captain after such passing writing. [57] [58] This – from cruise ships often applied – practice is apparently in Italy under the name “INCHINO” ( German: “bowing”) known. While the ship is in port or height of a place is, like the ship’s horns are operated. [59]

The recording of a telephone conversation between the commander of the MRSC Livorno, Gregorio Maria De Falco and Schettino at 01:46 clock shows that the latter was no longer at this time on board, though the evacuation was still in full swing. [60] De Falco told him, and the first officer to vigorously return immediately on board. Copies of this live recording, in which insults were used, circulated after the disaster in the Italian and international media. Schettino left the ship after reports of the Port Authority shortly after midnight and no longer walked in it. [61] [62]

What role does the company Costa Crociere played in course planning their ships, is currently not sufficiently clarified. Back in 2005, it is at the Costa Fortuna have come aboard, according to a photographer for a similar incident, but this was covered up. The shipping company rejected these representations. [63] [64]

The expert committee, which was set by the judge for preliminary investigations in Grosseto and should sift and worked up especially all the data recording devices, came under the 270-page final report, including how to determine results: [11] [52]

The analysis in the exit port of Civitavecchia course planning with the dense passage under Giglio (of which the captain then departed again) was flawed because, inter alia potential hazards of this course were not named by the navigation officer and was no detailed chart of the coast of the island.
Not all crew members know their role in a bailout (or called other than that provided), and for some the prescribed evidence of the rescue training were not available or has expired.
The mixture of the official language on board with the Italian “slang” English has done before and after the collision problems, including the helmsman has partially misunderstood commands given in English.
The captain came far too late for such a maneuver on the bridge brought people that can not be had on the bridge, then telephoned at critical moments with a former colleague on his mobile phone.
He failed to reduce the rate to an acceptable level for such a maneuver to determine a lookout and to learn from the officers in taking command of the situation.
The collision caused by the long crack in an immediate flooding of both (separated by bulkheads) Machinery spaces and main control room, so that the ship a few minutes after the collision without drive and lack of rudder control was completely unmanageable (total were five departments flooded, the stability was only backed up to two divisions).
The complete flooding of at least three departments were the ship’s officers known 15 minutes after the collision, and thus they would necessarily agree on this point, the MRCC and must prepare to evacuate, but that did not happen.
The emergency generator jumped from unexplained reasons automatically, manually after starting it switched itself due to an inoperative cooling circuit repeatedly from. All tests were, however, in recent times were normal, so this was seen as unpredictable.
None of the Lenzen provided pumps could be used because they were partially flooded and some had no electricity. However, the use of all pumps have the ship, according to the assessor can not save.
The final position in front of the island is caused by wind and current, the crew had no part in it. The anchor fell only after the ship had almost reached the end position and could thus also exert no influence.
When the rescue boats and islands of the country side were first used, although it was clear that with increasing tendency to use the seaborne rescue funds would be impossible.
The crews of the rescue funds were rarely actually provided, so some boats or islands with more educated people, others only with rescue personnel were occupied without training.
The captain and most of the officers left the ship, although several hundred people were still on board.

Criminal

On 25 February 2013 was the Grosseto prosecutor announced that it has requested the opening of main proceedings against Captain Francesco Schettino (criminal law charges against him: multiple manslaughter and assault, accident, premature abandon ship, leaving vulnerable persons, refusal to cooperate with the authorities) . Furthermore, the officers Ciro Ambrosio and Silvia Coronica, the helmsman Jacob Rusli Bin, the hotel director Manrico Giampedroni and the Head of the crisis coordination center of Costa Crociere, Roberto Ferrarini be charged with various offenses. [65] [66] Both the accident (Civil Criminal Code § 428 [67] ) as well as leaving early to the ship by the ship’s command (Codice della Navigazione § § 303.1097 [68] [69] ) are independent events in the Italian criminal or maritime law. The application is available online; [70] , the first hearing is scheduled for 15 April set. [70]
Details bailout

On a video of the bridge, which was filmed against 22:15 clock, to see and hear that the ship’s command itself was pretty insecure and made ​​no clear decisions. [71]
Another video shows the waters of some lifeboats with obvious problems. [72]
The ship’s command mentioned for the first time at 22:10 clock in one – initiated by the MRSC Livorno – phone call problems in this phone call was also spoken on demand only by a defective generator (in Livorno reports of passengers had accumulated, which already were wearing life jackets). First message received at 22:30 clock the authorities about the flooding. [73] at 22:58 clock the order was given to abandon ship. At this time, however, some officers and passengers had already begun to evacuate on their own. [74]
The deputy mayor of Giglio rose according to an interview on the night of the accident with the help of a rope-ladders of the Costa Concordia and initially sought a manager to coordinate the rescue. After he had found no one in twenty minutes, he helped initially only passengers on the starboard side when leaving the ship. As the ship listed to starboard side stronger and sank into the water, according to him were still about 500 people inside the ship, which no longer came up through the corridors steeper on the port side. Together with a ship’s officer, he brought a ladder and brought, along with two other accomplices, the passengers on the outer skin of the ship. It indicates, this officer was the only officer of the ship, which he had seen on board. [75]

Reaction of the shipping company

The company Costa Crociere called the disaster a “startling tragedy”. [76] On 15 January the cruise admitted in her blog one that the ship’s command had apparently made ​​several errors. Among other things, they have chosen a course too close to the coast. Furthermore, they did not comply with the organization of the rescue to the standards of the shipping company, which comply with the international rules or go beyond them. The shipping company points out that all crew members the disembarkation exercise regularly every 14 days and take place more training and instruction. [77] The traveler offered the shipping company for compensation of 11,000 euros for material losses and the repayment of € 3,000 travel costs. [78 ] At the hearing in October 2012, the shipping company stated that two-thirds of the survivors would have received the lump-sum compensation of 11,000 €. At the same hearing the shipping company was criticized for its crisis staff did not immediately passed to the Porto di Capitaneria information about the situation, what they rejected using an own opinion. [79]
Awards

In September 2012, the crew of the ship was awarded the title Seafarer of the Year to recognize their exemplary behavior during the shipwreck. [80]

In January 2013, the municipalities were of Giglio and Argentario with the gold medal for civil merit from the President of the Italian Republic for the involvement of citizens in the rescue of survivors of the Costa Concordia excellent. [81]
Lifting the ship
The crane platform Meloria on preparatory work for the pumping of the fuel end of January 2012

The approximately 2,200 tons of fuel ( heavy oil ) and 180 tons of lubricants on board introduced after the accident a considerable threat to the environment, especially for several nature reserves in the area of Monte Argentario, [82] and the ecologically valuable marine area around the Tuscan islands , a part of the Parco nazionale Tuscan Archipelago [83] and the multinational Pelagos Whale Sanctuary . Therefore, on 20 January declared for the area surrounding the crash site of the emergency. [84] The shipping company entrusted experts Smit International and the Italian salvage specialists Neri with emptying the fuel tanks, from mid-January was the crane platform Meloria the Neri Group for the site work. [85] On 22 March 2012 gave the task forces announced that the Abpumparbeiten were almost finished and there were only small remnants of heavy oil in the wreck. [86]
Wreck salvage platform from aircraft (July 2012)

The salvage of the ship is the largest operation of its kind ever undertaken [87] early March 2012, eight companies had submitted proposals to salvage; [88] came into the final round two of which (those of Smit-Neri Consortium and the U.S. company Titan Salvage ). Both proposals had to straighten the ship and recover in one piece, which was called for by the islanders. [89] In April 2012, Titan Salvage was awarded in cooperation with the Italian Micoperi Marine Contractors from the shipping company the contract to salvage. [90 ] [91] The wreck is to be erected on the piece and made ​​to float. Purpose is initially to the Lakefront an underwater platform will be constructed to prevent a further slump in the direction of the sea floor. Then to completely arranged with caissons , which are gradually filled with air, raised the ship and the buoyancy will be restored. The Consortium has published an explanatory video on the individual measures. [92] The ship is to be scrapped after recovery; [93] the recovery at a time, which was favored by the Region of Tuscany and the island of Giglio, with the estimated cost of about 300 million U.S. dollars more expensive than a scrapping site. The preparatory work for the removal began in May 2012; Micoperi the jack-up platform 61 with a 100-ton crane and other vehicles of Smit and Micoperi are on site. [94]

In October 2012, said Franco Gabrielli, head of the Italian Civil Protection that the capsized boat was secured with two months late and could not fall or break apart more. It is planned to create with the help of divers a concrete floor under the Costa Concordia braces for big platforms. In the spring of 2013, will attempt to straighten the ship. [95]

The shipwreck is after lifting expected in the port of Piombino brought (about 40 km), which is just for this purpose deepened and broadened, and scrapped there. [96]

End of 2012, said European project boss that the cost of recovery to about $ 400 million (equivalent to approximately 305 million euros) would amount. The project would therefore be much more expensive than planned, and only 145 million euros less than the construction of the ship has cost.

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