Crusade

The Crusades, by the ” Christian West “were strategically, economically and religiously motivated wars between 1095/99 and 13 Century. In a narrower sense, the term of the Crusades only run at this time Orient crusades against the Muslim states in the Middle East taught. After the First Crusade , the term “crusade” was expanded to other military actions whose purpose is not the Holy Land was. In this extended sense, the campaigns against non-Christianized peoples like to apply , Finns and Balts , against heretics , such as the Albigenses and against the Eastern Church counted them. Chance even a crusade against political (Christian) was proclaimed enemies of the popes.

Having an army of crusaders in 1099 Jerusalem was captured , were in the Levant four Crusader states established. Because of their threat from the Muslim countries bordering further Crusades were carried out, which was mostly a success hardly granted. The Kingdom of Jerusalem in 1187 suffered in the Battle of Hattin, a heavy defeat, even Jerusalem was lost again. With Acre fell in 1291 the last Crusader fortress in Outremer .

Preliminary remarks
General
Crusades

Since 7 Century was the Islamic expansion instead: the military, partly associated with assaults subjugation and colonization of Christian territories by Arab-Muslim conquerors in the Middle East , in North Africa , in Italy (conquest of Sardinia , the invasion of Rome and the destruction of St. Peter’s Basilica by the Aghlabids in 846 ), and (until the reconquest in the Reconquista ), the invasion of Spain and Portugal . 638 since Jerusalem was under Muslim rule. From the Christian side, the conquest of the Holy Land and the expulsion was the Saracens as reclaiming and as an act of defense of Christianity considered, which by official assistance and support of the Church was reaffirmed and quoted.

The First Crusade was a cry for help of the Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos for military support against the Seljuks preceded it. On 27 November 1095, Pope Urban II , the Christians at the Council of Clermont for a crusade in the “Holy Land”. Urban II called for the resident Muslims to drive and in Jerusalem to take the Christian holy places in possession. [1] More than eight decades have passed after it in the reign of the Fatimid Caliph al-Hakim in 1009 to the destruction of the Holy Sepulcher came, one of the largest sanctuaries of Christianity .

The Crusades were exploited after a short time, to achieve purely secular power interests, particularly those against the Byzantine Empire were addressed. Soon, the term crusade has not only wars against Muslims but also against the Roman church to “heretics” declared people (see Albigenses extended). This circumstance gave the papacy a strong political and military weapon in the hand.

Nevertheless, the religious aspect must, especially in the Crusades to the East, can not be underestimated. So were after the capture of Jerusalem in 1099 as the fallen martyrs was celebrated. Often the interests of the warring parties and the fighting troops were far apart. The mutual rulers pursued, among other political interests. The Crusaders themselves believed mostly to an honorable, yes sacred struggle for the church and God.

Even before the call to crusade for the liberation of Jerusalem, the Church had begun to support campaigns. So in the conquest of England was William the Conqueror in 1066 consecrated banner sent to the warlords who should strengthen him and his army in battle. On the sacred flags, among other things was Michael the Archangel depicted the patron saint of the Holy Roman Empire and later in Germany. Also, the Aragonese-French train to the Moorish Barbastro in Spain in 1063, the Pope Alexander II supported dogmatic, and the battles against the Arabs on Sicily , 1059, were under papal patronage and are to be regarded as a precursor of the Crusades. These are generally regarded as the first historical events to which the Catholic Church begins to strengthen campaigns dogmatic and justified.
Basis of the crusade call

A crusade was also penitential pilgrimage and expedition, which was considered by the (non-orthodox, catholic Christian) contemporaries proclaimed directly by God through the word of the Pope. Participants underlined a legally binding vows, much like a pilgrimage . As a result of the divine and the promulgation of papal crusades were very popular. This explains the large number of participants. The officially proclaimed the Crusades (including, for example, do not fall the defensive struggles of the Crusader states in Outremer ) were conceived as a matter of the whole occidental Christendom. The Crusader armies were therefore generally made of “knights” from all over Europe.

Basis for the Crusades was from a Christian perspective, the idea of ” just war “(Latin bellum iustum) as of Augustine of Hippo had been represented. This meant later that the “godly war” could be proclaimed only by a lawful authority (like the Pope). There had to be a just cause of war (such as the unfair treatment of believers), and the war had to be done for good intentions (like the divine love).
Contemporary criticism of the Crusades

After the disastrous outcome of the Second Crusade voices multiplied by theologians who opposed the idea of armed crusades. [2] , including in Germany, Würzburg annalist of the Second Crusade and the theologian Gerhoch of Rich Mountain , and the author of the play Ludus de Antichristo , in France, the abbot of Cluny Peter the Venerable in his later writings, the English Cistercian Isaac of Stella (later abbot in France), Walter Map (a courtier of King Henry II of England) and the Englishman Radulphus Niger. They rely on others Matt. 26:52 NIV , consequently, should die by the sword, who draws the sword, but also to Rev 19:21 NIV , where predicted that the returning Messiah as King of kings, the enemies of Christianity with the breath of his mouth – will destroy – that only with God’s Word. Around 1200 came the canonists canon as Alanus Anglicus , committed to tolerate the Muslims.

Particularly from the end of the 13th Century the popes had to increase the indulgences for listening to sermons clearly crusade, which is also to be interpreted as an indication of the diminishing enthusiasm of non-Middle Eastern Crusades. In the early 14th Some even called century popes crusades against political opponents, so the end of 1321 against Milan.
Controversies in History

In relation to the Crusades several points are controversial in modern research, such as regarding the extent of acceptance of the idea of ​​a crusade at a later time. An agreement is made difficult by various historical schools “.

Some historians (such as Hans Eberhard Mayer ), merely the Orient Crusades than the actual ‘Crusades. In contrast prevails in the Anglo-American language sometimes is a tendency before, to grasp the concept of content and even further in time (particularly influential: Jonathan Riley-Smith , Norman Housley). Also some military actions are the early modern period yet the Crusades expected added. Riley-Smith and his students this view is called “pluralistic”, according to them, the thought came another crusade in the late Middle Ages to enthusiasm. Critics counter that school to ignore sources that prove that the idea of ​​a crusade in the late Middle Ages, clearly having lost some appeal. An agreement has not yet been achieved. [3]

In the historiography of the last decades of the Crusader states are considered increasingly history and structure, so that the focus is no longer solely the chronological order and the historical events of the Crusades.
Motives of the Crusaders and situation before the Crusades

The motivation of the crusaders fed not only by religious zeal, but rather there were other reasons for their actions, which also changed over time. The individual reasons were:
Religious
The capture of Jerusalem in 1099

Based on a crusade calling Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095 (accompanied by the acclamation ” Deus lo vult “- God wills it) many crusaders were convinced to meet with the expulsion of the Muslims from the Holy Land of God’s will and the remission of all their sins to reach. This must be seen against the Christian population of the Holy Land and the devastation of Christian sites, for example in the context of the Christian reports and rumors of atrocities of Muslim rulers Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem in 1009. In competition with economic interests were the religious motives over time partly in the background – is especially evident in the conquest and looting of the Christian city of Constantinople Opel in the Fourth Crusade . With regard to the Crusades to the East, however, they never completely disappeared, they also had great influence on the Christian population in Europe. [4] particularly among the non-noble crusaders, religion was an important motive.
Relation to Islam

A key foreign policy issue for the Christian world represented Islam, the west in his quest first in the middle of the 7th Century of the Christian Byzantine Empire attacked. Ostrom / Byzantium lost since the Monophysite schism in the religious contrast to the Greek and Latin Empire areas related provinces Syria and Egypt within a few years to the Arabs that were there perhaps welcomed by sections of the population as liberators (which is controversial in the research); However, it further claimed that dominated Greek Asia Minor. The western North Africa contributed to the end of the 7th Century against the Arab resistance, while the Spanish Visigothic kingdom , so that the Arabs in the West only through the collapsed to 700 within a few months under the Arabs storm Frankish Empire were stopped and pushed back.

After the Byzantine Empire from 751 the Lombards had been ousted from central Italy (the case of the Exarchate of Ravenna ), it was at the beginning of the 8th Century mainly limited to the Orthodox heartland of Asia Minor, the Balkans, and the coasts of southern Italy. In the following period the empire was in the 9th and 10 Century to a modus vivendi with the Arabs, which led even into military alliances with individual Arab states. The military resurgence in the year 1000 was followed by an internal decline. With the Islamic Turkic Seljuks but at the same time entered a new, expansive power of the political scene in the Middle East, which expanded at the expense of the Arabs and the Byzantines. This led in 1071 to the military disaster for the Byzantines in the Battle of Manzikert against the Seljuk Turks , marking the start of the Turkish conquest of Anatolia.

Asia Minor, leaving the Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos for the defense of the Norman invasion of Epirus and Macedonia (with the goal of conquest of Constantinople Opel) finally 1085, to avoid being wiped out between two opponents against a fealty to a few bases completely the Seljuks. After the victory over the Normans Alexius asked the Pope to support the reconquest of Asia Minor territory of the Reich, which was now split into several Turkish Emirates, the Byzantine diplomacy played out against each other.

The great military effort of all Christian powers of that time is explained by the fact that Islam as a major threat – was seen – not only for the Byzantine Empire. Finally, the Islamic-Arab power area bordered on the Pyrenees to France, also almost all the Mediterranean islands and parts of southern Italy had been temporarily conquered by Arabs. The latter were also after recapture repeatedly attacked by them. The Byzantine Sicily was conquered by the Arabs from 827, then by the Normans until 1194 to Henry VI. fell, causing the kingdom of Hohenstaufen also bordered directly to the Islamic sphere.
Relationship to Orthodoxy

The Oriental Schism of 1054 loaded from the beginning of the Crusades on the relationship between Orthodox and Catholic Christians. Another aspect is the political relationship between the two leading powers of the Catholic or Orthodox world countries. The proper name of the German and the Byzantine Empire was “Roman Empire” and the respective emperors deduced claim leadership over the entire Christian world from States. Byzantium in the 12th business Century an expansionary policy towards the West. Dynastic marriages with the Hungarian and German royal house, but also military intervention in Italy with the aim of the (Western) Roman imperial crown to win, were a basic constant of the foreign policy of the Byzantine Komnenendynastie . To reduce the influence of Venice in the Byzantine Empire, Constantinople Opel pursued in early in the second half of the 12th Century a sharp anti-Venetian policy. This remained in Western Europe, of course, not without reaction. The Crusades, therefore, increasingly directed not only against Islam, but at the same time, more and more against the Orthodox, Greek dominated Byzantium.

Nevertheless, the religiously motivated crusade idea was also in the following years, a recurrent feature of European politics, when is emphasized in research sometimes that the idea of ​​a crusade in the 13th Century having lost some power (see the section above controversies in the history of science). Overall, one may well their importance in the Late Middle Ages no longer fix too high. Thus, although a military expedition was considered in 1453 to Constantinople Opel against Sultan Mehmed II to defend. But this half-hearted expedition started rather late, namely in April in 1453. The Sultan had however already begun in the spring of 1452 with the construction preparations for a possible siege and made it no secret.

Whether the concerted military aid Christian powers, such as the Holy Roman Empire, and one of Poland , in the defense of Vienna in 1683 must stand against the Turks in the crusade tradition is questionable. 1528 came to a few decades ago, namely unimaginable event: France and the Ottoman Empire concluded an alliance against the Habsburg empire. Latest with the integration of the Muslim state in the alliance system of the Christian powers of unifying claim the Catholic crusade ended in European politics.
Social factors in Europe
The Krak des Chevaliers in Syria

The Western nobility hoped by the conquest of new possessions. Also, and just hit the on the younger sons of the nobility, who were not entitled to inherit, and now saw an opportunity, still be able to rule over its own territory. This was also an object of the Church, because the Church Peace (a papal rule that dictated strict, when and how was to be fought, at Christmas and other important holidays could not for example be fought) was repeatedly disrupted by conflicts in which it in primarily concerned territorial disputes. Thus, the Crusades offered a welcome employment for the surplus sons, who could not be accommodated in the monastery or in the clergy or wanted.

Large parts of the rural population in the crusade saw a chance to escape from the harsh and often unfair living conditions in the home – especially since the Pope had made an end of serfdom in the prospect for anyone who would take up the cross and go along to the Holy Land.

However, criminals and outlaws followed the calls, because they were able to escape through her crusade vow of law enforcement and hoped a new life or prey.
Economic policy motives

Economically benefited the Italian Maritime Republics ( Genoa , Pisa , Venice and others) from trade with the Orient. Thus, it was considered briefly, launch a crusade to secure the spice route. The idea was, however, left quite soon fall again.

The Papacy promised from the control of the Holy Land, a massive strengthening its position of power. Ultimately, the popes have also probably hoped to be reunited with the or to the control of the Eastern Church. In addition, at the beginning of the Fourth Crusade also dominated economic interests. The best example of this motif is probably the Fourth Crusade itself, which was diverted from the commercial city of Venice to Constantinople in the Opel and looting by the army of crusaders with transportation of prey led to Venice to trade off competitors. Here is the complete perversion of religious crusade originally thought shows on the one hand, on the other hand also a reason for the ever decreasing effect of the Crusades in defense of the Eastern Roman Empire.

The financing of the crusades in the various dioceses was the Tenth Crusade . To this end, official records were like the Liber decimationis created.
Other factors

The British historian Robert Bartlett sees the Crusades in a larger, pan-European context [5] : In the 11th Century is a strong population growth due to favorable climatic conditions and new developments in agricultural technology. The surplus population leads to an expansion in the peripheries of Europe: Iberian Peninsula, Ireland, Germania Slavica , Baltic States and also give to the Holy Land.
Overview: concept and timeframe

In the strict sense is understood in general only the Orient Crusades Crusades, ie against the Muslim states of the Middle East looking Crusades (but see the section above “research problems”). Besides and then there were the following types of crusades:

against Gentiles ( Contact , Finns, Balts)
against the Eastern Church (rather en passant, the territories of the Eastern Church were never official target of a crusade),
against heretics or insurgents declared heretics ( Cathars (Albigensians); Stedingers ; Hussites )
against political opponents of the papacy (against Ghibellines , against King Manfred of Sicily and also in Sicily in Aragonese crusade against Peter III. Aragón )

The crusade in its original meaning had only the liberation of Jerusalem and the goal was a pan-European company, which is also called passagia generalia. From this, the passagia particularia that could turn against every other developed place.

The term “crusade” was only in the 13th Century marked, prior to it, only the terms “armed pilgrimage “and” armed pilgrimage “. In contemporary Latin sources of the crusade was predominantly described as expeditio, iter in terram Sanctam (to the Holy Land) or peregrinatio (based on the traditional pilgrimage).

Besides the actual Crusades there was the Cathars – or Albigensian Crusade , which in Occitan ( southern France took place), the Children’s Crusade , which for most participants in the slavery ended, the campaign of the German knights in the Baltic in 1225 and various other campaigns such B . to non-Christian peoples as Turks or Mongols , partly down to the 15th Century lasted. Also makes war against political opponents were of medieval rulers sometimes touted as a crusade to prevent questioning of the necessity of war to gain allies or to looting and other attacks on civilians to give a semblance of legitimacy.

A lasting legacy of the Crusades were the Knights , a kind of fighting monastic orders .
Classical method of counting the Crusades

In historiography seven Crusades (Orient Crusades) can be distinguished as the official crusades, although further acts of war under the name, The Crusades’ took place. The count is not entirely uniform in the literature, as some Crusades are not unanimously regarded as independent Crusades.

Timeline

The First Crusade : 1096-1099, target: Jerusalem

People’s Crusade : 1096, Target: Jerusalem

German Crusade of 1096 , target: actually Jerusalem

Crusade of 1101 : Target: Jerusalem
Crusade Sigurd of Norway : 1108-1111, target: Jerusalem / Sidon

Second Crusade : 1147-1149, target: actually Edessa, Damascus ultimately

Wendish Crusade : 1147, Target: Germania Slavica

Third Crusade : 1189-1192, target: Jerusalem

Crusade of Henry VI. : 1197-1198, target: Jerusalem

Fourth Crusade : 1202-1204, target: actually Egypt / Jerusalem, Constantinople ultimately Opel
Children’s Crusade : 1212 Target: Jerusalem
Albigensian Crusade : 1209-1229, target: Occitan
Fifth Crusade:

Crusade of Damietta : 1217-1221, target: actually Jerusalem, ultimately Egypt
Crusade of Frederick II : 1228-1229, target: Jerusalem

Crusade Theobald IV of Champagne : 1239-1240, target: Ashkelon / Damascus
Crusade of Richard of Cornwall : 1240-1241, target: Ashkelon / Jerusalem
Sixth Crusade : 1248-1254, target: Egypt / Jerusalem

Shepherds Crusade of 1251 : Destination: Egypt actually

Seventh Crusade : 1270 Target: Tunis / Jerusalem

Crusade of Prince Edward : 1270-1272, target: Acre / Jerusalem

Aragonese Crusade : 1284-1285, target: Girona
Shepherds Crusade of 1320 : Target: actually Andalusia
Crusade against Alexandria : 1365, Target: Egypt
Crusade against Mahdia : 1390 Target: curb piracy
Crusade of Nicopolis 1396, target: halting the Ottoman penetration in Europe

Also the Swedish conquest against the pagans in Finland in the 13th Century known as the Crusades. In the 14th Century were about 50 crusades against the then pagan Prussians and Lithuanians out. These campaigns organized by the Teutonic Order is also known as ” Prussia trips “or” Litauerreisen “. The 15th Century has four crusades against the Hussites on. From 1443 to 1444, a mostly classified as “Last Crusade” campaign was against the Ottoman Empire, instead, in the Battle of Varna failed.
History
Frederick I Barbarossa as a crusader – Miniature from a manuscript of 1188

A more detailed description of the history contained in the separate articles on the individual crusades.
The First Crusade and the Crusader States emergence

Because of the oppression of the Byzantine Empire by the Muslim Seljuk Turks following the Byzantine defeat at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, was the Byzantine emperor Alexios I Komnenos asked the West for help. Pope Urban II in 1095 had then also on the Council of Clermont to the First Crusade called to liberate the holy places of Christianity. However, it was Jerusalem at the time of the “crusade call” in 1095 temporarily owned by the Seljuks (1071-1098), could grant the Christian pilgrim largely undisturbed. A religious enthusiasm was generated in Western Europe, took the partially terrifying trains: So in were Rhineland several Jewish communities of Christians destroyed literally, and even simple people made ​​off with Peter the Hermit in the Holy Land (the so-called People’s Crusade ) – they should, however, never reach. [6]

As the various Crusader armies end of 1096 the Byzantine capital Constantinople Opel reached, occurred more problems: Although the Byzantines had not wished for a crusade (they were rather on mercenaries from Europe hoped) and the Crusaders also not distrusted very reason – some of them, like the among Italian Normans had previously fought against Byzantium – Alexius supported them first, especially since they swore an oath of allegiance to him and the Crusaders were also dependent on the Emperor. In the spring of 1097 the army set off, and soon enough a first successes came as the conquest of Nicaea , which was left to the contract in accordance with the Byzantines. After heavy fighting, including in taking Antioch , this crusade ended with the conquest of Jerusalem in July 1099, when there were bloody massacre of the remaining residents – regardless of religious affiliation. It was followed by the emergence of the Crusader states . Byzantium had indeed recovered parts of Asia Minor, was the establishment of states in the Holy Land that were independent of Byzantium, but with distrust of what soon to be fighting with the Principality of Antioch led.
Situation of the Crusader States and the Second, Third and Fourth Crusade
The Crusader states in 1100

However, the so-called crusader states in the long run proved no match for the Muslim pressure: Most noblemen were left again shortly after the fall of Jerusalem, remained not only the elite. On one hand, the feudal organized Crusader states were due to the small Catholic-Christian population number (where the majority of the population was Christian, she was not Catholic, as in Syria ) dependent on supplies from Europe, what these countries lent a certain “colonial” character. On the other hand, there was a quite remarkable change in the relationship between Christians and Muslims: From then on, they lived peacefully with each other quite often. The Muslims was a largely free exercise of religion permitted, and it was granted them their own jurisdiction. Even compared to other Christian denominations, the Catholic behaved “Franks” (as the Crusaders were mainly in Arabic sources called) quite tolerant. This development was also a direct consequence of the small number of backward Crusaders who would otherwise not have been able to control the conquered space – which is only to a certain extent but was anyway possible. Even the Jews had in the Crusader states a much better position than in Europe and were in Outremer, again unlike in Europe, after the conquest of Jerusalem, never the victim of pogroms. [7]

Also, sometimes even if it succeeded the Crusaders, the warring Muslim empires that surrounded them off against each other (the Fatimids in Egypt were the Seljuks example hostile), the military situation was always extremely difficult. The ultimately unsuccessful Second Crusade (1147-1149) had been the goal, the beleaguered Crusader States (after the fall of the County of Edessa to relieve). After the Battle of Hattin in 1187, in which the entire military contingent fact of the Kingdom of Jerusalem had been beaten, even Jerusalem fell back into Muslim hands. The subsequent Crusades, which should reverse this trend, had little success, partly because of insufficient planning or strategic mistake, partly because of disagreement with the leadership of the High Command: such as the Third Crusade , where the main part of the army of French and English insisted that minded were hostile to each other.

The Fourth Crusade ended in 1204 even with the conquest and looting of Constantinople , then the largest city in the Christian world, by Knights, with a share of the spoils made ​​the shipment of the crusader army by the fleet of Venice “paid”. The Pope , the face of the atrocities of the Crusaders it was also in no doubt that this a church union with Orthodoxy was virtually impossible, this action condemned in the strongest terms, which practically remained without consequences.
Consequences of the war, more Crusades in the Middle Ages

The Republic of Venice had thus weakened their biggest rivals in the Orient trade permanently, the aura of the Crusades took it certainly permanently damage, especially in this context, the Byzantine Empire by an intact great power to one (after the re-conquest of Constantinople in 1261 ) a regional power, was demoted. Moreover, the ratio of the Orthodox peoples to Western Europe was heavily burdened for centuries. So the Russians turned to centuries almost entirely on Europe.

The Crusades had thus finally their original motive, the reconquest of the Holy Land lost. However, you never lost sight of this goal completely, even if all other attempts – from diplomatic success of the Hohenstaufen Emperor Frederick II during the Fifth (or for other count Sixth) crusade apart – had any success or even ended in military disaster.

The Albigensian Crusade (1209-1229) – like other, similar types of business against Christians – contributed to the fact that the Crusades were often understood only as a political weapon of the papacy. Even campaigns against the Ghibellines (supporters of the emperor) in Italy were declared too Crusades. In contrast, the “Crusades” wore the Reconquista of the Iberian peninsula already de facto national trains.

The Crusades in the Levant in 1291 ended with the fall of Acre , the last Crusader bastion. The Crusades ( Litauerzüge ) in the Baltic States (which were mainly served the missionary and by the participating nobles as “social event” conceived) even went to the 14th Century on.
Crusades out of the Middle Ages

Even after the end of the Middle Ages, military actions were repeatedly as “crusades” declared (as an attempt at invasion of England by the Catholic King of Spain, Philip II , and the Battle of Lepanto was led by a so-called “crusade League”). The Papacy took in the 17th Century similar attempts, but which at best only temporary successes were granted.

But already the Persian war of the Eastern Roman Emperor Heraclius in the 7th Century contributed in some way traits of a Christian religious war, in which the emperor was styled as outstanding model of a Christian warrior later: for example, the work of historians was William of Tyre in the old French translation under the title Livre d’Eracles published.
Aftermath

The term ” crusade “is not only limited to the historic Crusades, but is now also used in a figurative sense. Its pejorative use as a negative label in the international political rhetoric in western Europe generally perceived as a thoroughly absurd and fallacious reference to an anachronism long since been overcome and there encounters therefore largely based on strict rejection.
General term use

” crusade “is in German as in English as a synonym for a social effort or organized campaign uses that will serve the enforcement of certain goals. It is said, for example, of “crusades” against global poverty or children against diseases and epidemics. In political debates, the term is often used polemically, to brand a procedure the other side as far covered, for example, if the speech is a verbal slugfest of a “crusade against the Internet infrastructure.”
Political use of the term

In the U.S., the participation in the liberation of Europe from Nazi rule was often associated with the term “crusade”. So were some of the U.S. commander and later U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower ‘s war diary entitled Crusade in Europe .

In the twentieth century the mass evangelical preacher called Billy Graham ‘s major events, including support for troops in the Vietnam War as “Crusades”, Eng. for the Crusades.

The U.S. President George W. Bush called the second war in Iraq repeatedly as a “crusade against terrorists.” At the urging of his advisers, however, Bush waived quickly on this term, mainly because of its historical and substantive significance. Conversely, the Western states, especially as far as they take part in the conquest and occupation of Iraq, often referred to as “crusaders” or “crusaders” known in Arab countries, where the resistance of the Muslims had gathered to apply.

The Italian Reform Minister Roberto Calderoli from the right ruling party Lega Nord called in response to the protests in the Islamic world in cartoon dispute to the Pope on, to put himself at the head of a “new crusade” against Muslims.

In July 2006, published Al-Qaeda video message titled “The Zionist-crusader war against Lebanon and the Palestinians,” in which alleged against the “crusader alliance” of Western states with Israel is polemic. [8] . The reasons why Al-Qaeda apparently effective to fight against the “Crusaders” call can has, Amin Maalouf [9] discussed, he draws parallels to the events in the conquest of the city Maarath-Numan in 1098.

Categories: Uncategorized

Comments are closed.