Dallas

Dallas (Dallas also) is the third largest city of the state American from Texas and center most populous metropolitan area in the state. Only Houston and San Antonio has more inhabitants, while its metropolitan area is smaller than that of Dallas. The Dallas metropolitan area has more than 6.4 million inhabitants, housing approximately one of every four residents of Texas. Dallas is the ninth largest city in the country . It is the seat of Dallas County , and most of the city is located within this county. However, certain parts of the city of Dallas extend toward the four surrounding counties: Collin , Denton , Kaufman and Rockwall .

Dallas was founded in 1841 by a merchant and lawyer, John Neely Bryan . For three decades the city grew slightly. However, during the 1870s , several railroads connected the city with the rest of the country, and Dallas quickly became a major railway hub, which greatly stimulated its economic and population growth. Currently Dallas is an alpha global city – . The city’s economy continues to rely heavily on the sector of transport . Dallas is a major railway hub and airport in the region south-central United States. Its airport is one of the busiest airports in the world. Dallas, moreover, is a major financial center of Texas.

History
Until 1870

Native indigenous Caddo lived in the area years before the arrival of the first Europeans. The caddos belonging to indigenous socio-cultural group of Aztecs , were nomadic and lived primarily on fishing and hunting. The first European to explore the region where today the city of Dallas is located was Athanase of Mezieres in 1778 . De Mezieres, an explorer French in the service of the Crown Spanish , probably crossed the West Fork of the Trinity River , near the present city of Fort Worth . De Mezieres then proceeded towards the north to the Red River .

The city of Dallas was founded by a lawyer, John Neely Bryan , in 1841 , after having explored this region in 1839 . Bryan also noted that various indigenous crossing roads into one of the few natural river crossings of the Trinity River – where the river was shallow enough to allow passage of the tractive vehicle, horses and persons, at least during some part of the year – several hundred kilometers. This passage has become known as Bryan’s Bluff, and was almost impassable barrier of mud and water during the late fall until early spring . Anyway, this region of the river became strategically important because it is a natural crossroads whose bed was formed by hard ground. This cross eventually became a key part of the north-south route most used in the Republic of Texas , between the settlements south Texas and the United States expanding north. This route, as well as the natural crossing has become even more important when the United States annexed Texas in 1845 .

John Neely Bryan initially built a house on the edge of the Trinity River, and claimed some 260 hectares of land in 1841. The U.S. government gave the land in the region to Bryan. This would then start to divide this land into lots, and sell these lots to new settlers. Bryan also planned several details of the overall infrastructure of the future city, such as the system of public roads (streets and roads). During the next two decades, hundreds of European immigrants would install itself in the region. These immigrants were primarily French , Belgian and Swiss .

The Dallas County was formed in 1846 , and both the county and the settlement created by Bryan were probably named after George Mifflin Dallas , who was the 11th Vice President of the United States at the time. The origin of the name of the county and the city of Dallas, however, is still under debate. Bryan, the founder of the settlement of Dallas, said the city and the county were named “after my friend Dallas.” Dallas was so called by its inhabitants since 1843 , and there are four theories on the origin of the name of the city and county:

Named in honor of George Mifflin Dallas .
Named in honor of Alexander James Dallas , an admiral who was the secretary of the U.S. Treasury.
Named in honor of a friend’s son Bryan. The child then this would say that his father said that he had named the town “after my friend Dallas” (a person whose identity is unknown).
The town was named for a vote by the townspeople, with the county being named with the same name as its capital.

In 1855 , a group of European artists created a community utopian west of Dallas. This community was called La Reunion. When this community collapse in 1857 , many artists moved to Dallas, where these artists installed base of artistic culture that exists today in the neighborhood of Deep Ellum , near the city’s financial center. Dallas was elevated to a secondary city (town) in 1856 . However, the small town would be a minor place until the end of the American Civil War . This began in 1861 , and Dallas became a military camp of the Confederate States of America .
1870 – current times

The great economic growth that impulsaria a large population growth began in the 1870s . In 1870 , several railroads were being built close to the region. But not these railroads crisscrossed the city proper. City leaders had no intention of leaving Dallas outside a railway, and paid the Houston and Texas Central Railroad five thousand dollars for that divert the route of the railroad about 32 kilometers towards the west, and thus allow this railway line cut north-south of the city, instead of Corsicana , as was previously planned. A year later, Dallas leaders could not pay the Texas and Pacific Railroad , but forced this railway company to build its rail line, which would cut the state in an east-west in the city, through the use of a law on amendment state, which forced the company to build a railroad along Browder Springs, located immediately south of Main Street in Dallas. The main north-south railway and the main east-west railroad crossed in Dallas in 1873 , and thus ensured the future of Dallas as a commercial center.

In 1871 , Dallas was elevated to city primary (city). Throughout the 1870s , two-line railway – the Houston and Texas Central Railway and the Texas and Pacific Railway – were built in the state. These railroads eventually started connecting Dallas with the rest of the state and the country. Companies began selling agricultural or farming equipment for local farmers in the region. They started sending their products through the use of terminal freighter city. Dallas quickly prospered. In 1890 , the city had about 38,000 inhabitants, and was then the largest city in the state. In 1930 , the city’s population had grown to 260,000 inhabitants, while Dallas then lost its title of largest city in Texas to Houston .

Dallas began to industrialize from the 1930s , with the discovery of several wells of oil , about 160 kilometers from the city. The Great Depression just chartered the economy and standard of living of the population of the town, thanks to continuous processing and distribution of oil to other parts of the city. In 1940 , Dallas had about 295 thousand inhabitants. The onset of World War II increased the industrialization of Dallas, and several were installed in town centers manufaturação of military aircraft , weapons and other supplies in general. After the war ended, Dallas became a major industrial center and several factories settled in the city for decades to come. In 1970 , Dallas had about 844 thousand inhabitants.

On November 22 of 1963 , U.S. President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dealey Plaza , Dallas. On the same day, the then Vice President of the United States, Lyndon B. Johnson , became president of the country, with its simple inauguration ceremony was made ​​aboard the aircraft presidential. At the request of Johnson, the ceremony was conducted inside the aircraft, and the aircraft with the windows closed because Johnson feared also be the target of an assassination attempt.

In 1974 , the International Airport to Dallas-Fort Worth opened. This airport was eventually chosen as a primary hub of operations for American Airlines . Currently, the airport is the sixth busiest in the world. On September 3 of 2005 , 25 000 inhabitants of New Orleans were evacuated to Dallas. New Orleans was hit by Hurricane Katrina a few days before.
Geography

Dallas has a total area of 997.1 square kilometers . Of this area, 887.2 km ² consists of land and 110 km ² is covered by water bodies. Approximately 11.03% of the city is covered by water. The metropolitan area of Dallas is located in a region whose terrain is low, at an altitude of about 140 to 170 meters.

The Trinity River runs through the city, in a sense northwest – southeast, running toward Houston , and through the financial center of Dallas. The river, along its route in Dallas, is surrounded by dikes 15 meters high, which prevent possible flooding of the river flood the city. Another major waterbody in the city is the White Rock Lake . The lake and a park of 270 thousand square meters located near the waterbody, is one of the main points of recreation in the city.

Climate

Dallas has a climate subtropical humid, having winters relatively mild and summers hot. Eventually, cold fronts coming from Canada can cause the temperature of the city falls below 0 ° C . Sometimes it snows in the city, although this is a relatively rare occurrence. The average temperature in winter is of Dallas 7 ° C, the averages of the minimum is 2 ° C and the average maximum temperature is 13 ° C. Minimum may reach -18 ° C (although very rarely drop below -5 ° C), MFR can reach up to 20 ° C. The lowest temperature ever recorded in Dallas was -17 ° C, in 1989 . The highest temperature ever recorded in winter city was 35 ° C, in 1996 .

The springs and autumns of Dallas are mild with moderate temperatures. In summer , Dallas has an average temperature of 32 ° C. The minimum city hardly fall below 20 ° C. The average minimum temperature is 23 ° C. The mean maximum city range between 25 ° C and 40 ° C, with an average of 34 ° C. The highest temperature ever recorded in Dallas was 46 ° C, in 1909 , and in 2000 reached 44 ° C. The lowest temperature recorded in the city in the summer was 4 ° C, in September 1908.

The weather in Dallas is unstable due to its geographical location, in East Texas, which has a little bumpy terrain with few natural barriers, which allow the rapid movement of large air masses from the north and south. In certain cases, drastic changes occur in the time of the city, such as dropping or sudden rise in temperature or a sudden storm. A common phrase in the city is if you do not like the weather, wait a little while and it’ll change (if you do not like the weather, wait a bit, and the weather will change soon).

The rate of precipitation average annual rainfall in the city is 91 inches. The nearest hhúmida the year in the city is the spring (primarily between April and June (30 cm during this period), with the autumn registering approximately 25 centimeters. Periods of drought are summer and winter, which record less than 20 inches each . Dallas is located close to a region south of the venerable tornadoes and major storms in the south-central United States. In spring , cold fronts coming from Canada collide with warm fronts coming from the Gulf of Mexico . When these fronts are in Dallas, severe storms occur.

Demographics

According to the census of American in 2000 , Dallas has a population of 1,188,580 people, 451,833 households, and 266,581 families occupied. The population density of the city is one of 339.7 inhabitants / km ². Dallas has a total of 484 117 households, resulting in a density of 545.7 dwellings / km ². 50.83% of the population of Dallas is comprised of white , 25.91% are african-Americans , 2.70% are Asian , 0.54 are Native American , 0.05% are native Polynesians , 17.24% are descendants from other races, and 2.72% are descended from two or more races . 35.55% of the population of Dallas are Hispanics of any race. Due to the strong current immigration Mexican region, Hispanics surpassed african-Americans for the first time in the 2000 census as the largest ethnic and racial city.

There are 451,833 households in the city occupied. 30.3% of these homes are inhabited by at least one person under 18 years of age, 38.8% are occupied by a couple, 14.9% are families with a female householder with no husband present as breadwinner, and 41 % are non-families. 32.9% of all occupied dwellings are inhabited by one person, and 6.5% are occupied by one person 65 years of age or older. Each residence is occupied on average occupied by 2.58 persons. The average size of a household in the city is of 3.37 persons.

26.6% of the population of Dallas has 18 years of age, 11.8% are between 18 and 24 years of age, 35.3% are between 25 and 44 years of age, 17.7% are between 45 and 64 years of age and 8.6% of the population has Dallas 65 years of age or older. For every 100 females there are about 101.6 males. For every 100 females over 18 years of age are 100.5% males.

The average annual income of an occupied residence is 37,628 U.S. dollars , and the median income for a family is 40 921. Males have an average annual income of $ 31,149, and females have an average income of $ 28,235. The per capita income for the city is $ 22,183. 17.8% of the population of Dallas and 14.9% of its population living below the poverty line. 25.1% of those under age 18 and 13.1% of the population aged 65 and older are living below the poverty line.
Religion

Religion Protestant evangelical is practiced by most inhabitants of the city. The evangelical Protestantism has a great influence in Dallas, marked by the presence of large churches Methodists and Baptists , and are the main source of funds for the two largest universities in the city. Dallas is one of the largest cities in the so-called Bible Belt (“Bible Belt” in Portuguese ), a region located in the southeastern United States, where evangelical Protestantism has a strong presence in the community. Largely because of its large Hispanic population, Dallas also has a strong community Catholic . Currently, about 25% of the residents of Dallas are Catholic (about 400 thousand), and this percentage is increasing rapidly because of the large number of Hispanics (who are mostly Catholics) that are installed annually in the city. The city also has a minority community of Muslims , Mormons and Jews .
Crime

Most neighborhoods in the city has very low crime rates, which tend to be much higher in certain specific areas of the city such as blocks near expressways , and in certain residential complexes. The crime rate in Dallas was the second highest in the country, between any U.S. city with over a million inhabitants by 1995 . Since Detroit , due to its population decline off the list of American cities with over a million inhabitants, Dallas has been the U.S. city with over a million inhabitants that has the highest crime rates in the United States. In 1995 , there were about 280 murders. Currently, Dallas registers about 230-235 murders a year, resulting in a homicide rate of about 5.5 between 100 thousand inhabitants.
Economy
View of the business district of Dallas.

The metropolitan area of Dallas is sometimes called the Silicon Valley of Texas, because of its large high-tech industry and telecommunications. Dallas is a major industrial center for manufacturing, the largest in the state of Texas. The main industrial products are manufactured in Dallas electronic products (computers, software and telecommunications products), clothes and fabrics , industrially processed foods, machinery and printed material. The city is home to several companies oil . In total, the city has about 1900 factories.

Dallas is a major financial center. Several banks and insurance companies have their headquarters or regional headquarters in the city, making the city one of the largest financial centers of the south central United States. Only Houston has an equivalent to the financial sector of Dallas.

Dallas is a major transport hub, being the main hub airport, rail and road from the south-central United States.
Culture

The reputation of the people of Dallas is that they themselves consider themselves more sophisticated than other inhabitants of Texas, especially Fort Worth. A strong economy Dallas attracted immigrants from all over the world, including several U.S. states. The people of Dallas have lunch or dine outside the home about four times a week, the third highest rate in the country. Dallas has about 335 parks public, covering 18,851 hectares .

Along with Houston , Dallas is one of two primary economic centers of Texas. Because of this, Dallas and Houston have a friendly rivalry, which dates from the beginning of the twentieth century . Certain characteristics of these cities are often compared. One of these comparisons is the population of both cities – similar worldwide, Houston has a larger municipal population, but a lower population density. Dallas, meanwhile, has a larger population in its metropolitan area.

Another comparison is about the summers of Dallas and Houston. The Houston Texas generally agree that is significantly more moist and Dallas that is slightly hotter, although higher moisture Houston give the final sometimes higher temperatures apparent. Other characteristics often compared are cultural attractions and sports teams.
Deep Ellum

The Deep Ellum region is an area east of downtown that has historically been the center of counter-culture in the city, with its variety of bars and clubs, offering regular acts of music and sometimes unusual menu bars and restaurants region. Deep Ellum is a region especially popular among the city’s youth.
Sports

Dallas is home to the following professional sports teams:

Dallas Cowboys , football ( Cowboys Stadium )
Dallas Mavericks , basketball ( National Basketball Association )
Dallas Stars , ice hockey ( National Hockey League )
Dallas Sidekicks , futsal ( Major Indoor Soccer League )
FC Dallas , soccer ( Major League Soccer )

Recreation

The City of Dallas administers:

406 parks , which have a total of 21,000 acre (8500 hectares ) of green space.
17 small lakes , which have a total of 4400 acres (1780 hectares) in area.
61.6 miles (99 kilometers ) of trails for cycling and jogging .
47 community centers, 276 sports fields, 60 swimming pools, 232 playgrounds , 173 fields banquet , 112 camps volleyball , 258 fields of tennis , 258 areas for picnics , six fields of golf , two training camps of golf, 100 acres (0 , 4 km ²) of zoo , the Fair Park , a recreational and educational complex of 260 acres (1 km ²) in area, and 477 fields of athletics .

Education
Schools

Most schools in Dallas public is administered by the Dallas Independent School District (District Dallas Independent Schools). This school district also runs schools in other towns. The District Dallas Independent Schools administers one of the largest public school systems across the United States. In total, there are about 200 schools that provide education to approximately 140,000 students (data valid only for the city of Dallas, including all schools administered by the Independent School District of Dallas, this number rises to about 160 thousand students ). Most children and adolescents who study this District are Hispanic or african Americans.

The provision of public education in certain areas of the city are the responsibility of other school districts, administered by other cities or counties. The city has about 110 private schools, which are responsible for educating nearly 120,000 students, most whites.
Libraries, colleges and universities

The system of municipal libraries Dallas public library is built by a central, large, and about 40 other smaller libraries throughout the city.

The institution of higher education oldest of metropolitan Dallas’s Southern Methodist University, founded in 1911 . The largest university in the city is the University of Dallas , followed by the University of Texas at Austin . 11 other institutions of higher education, including universities , colleges and polytechnics, are located in the city or in its metropolitan area. Another important institution, especially to Protestants, is the Christ For The Nations Institute and CFNI . An Interdenominational Theological seminary that attracts young people from around the world for intensive training and preparation in the area of ​​ministry.
Transportation
Airports
Most passengers coming and going to use the Dallas International Airport to Dallas-Fort Worth .

Dallas is a major poles airport in the United States. The Dallas metropolitan area has two major airports business: the International Airport to Dallas-Fort Worth and Love Field . In addition, Dallas Executive Airport is an airport for general aviation , located in the suburb of Addison , about 15 kilometers from the financial center of Dallas and two miles from Dallas. Four other general aviation airports are located in different cities of metropolitan Dallas.

International Airport to Dallas-Fort Worth is located between Dallas and Fort Worth, almost exactly equidistant from the financial center of both cities. It was inaugurated in 1973 . In terms of size, this is the largest airport in the state of Texas, the second largest in the United States and third largest in the world. In terms of passenger traffic, the International Airport to Dallas-Fort Worth is the busiest in the state, the fourth busiest in the United States and the sixth busiest in the world. International Airport to Dallas-Fort Worth is the main hub of American Airlines , the largest airline in the world.

Love Field is located in Dallas, about 10 kilometers northwest of the city’s financial center. It was the first commercial airport serving the city, and the main airport in the metropolitan area of Dallas until the 1970s , when the vast majority of airlines operating at Love Field moved to the International Airport to Dallas-Fort Worth. The Southwest Airlines , an airline founded in Dallas in 1971 , is the only large airline to operate at Love Field. This is a secondary hub for Southwest.
Public transport

The Dallas Aera Rapid Transit (DART) is a municipal corporation of Dallas that administers a system of public transportation that serves Dallas and 12 surrounding cities. DART operates a system of train routes (urban or inter-urban), a system of light rail and trains inter-urban, connecting Dallas with neighboring towns.
Expressways

Dallas is a center road . Seven interstate highways and five state highways connecting Dallas with its suburbs and the rest of the country. Ten of these highways are freeways . The total length of expressways in Dallas is approximately 200 kilometers. The vast majority of these expressways run from downtown Dallas towards the suburbs. In the center, these routes are connected to each other, forming a ring road. Within this ring is located in the financial center of Dallas. The expressway LB Johnson, however, form a large ring road around the city, cutting the south and north of Dallas.
Railways

Dallas became a major city during the 1870s thanks to the opening of two railroads in the city, which allowed the transport of agricultural and livestock products to other locations in the region, as well as buying products from other locations in the region, thus stimulating trade city. Dallas is currently the largest railway hub of south-central United States.

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