Migration or emigration (from Latin ex, out, and migrare, hiking) is leaving a home country permanently. immigrants or emigrants leave their home, either voluntarily or forced out of business , religious , political or personal reasons. To emigration from a country follows the immigration to another. Change of residence within a specified area is, however, as internal migration, respectively. Most migrate individuals or individual families of, in history there were also migrations of large populations.

According to Article 13 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights , everyone has the right “to move freely within a state and to choose his place of residence freely” and “every country to leave, including his own, and to return to his country”. [1]

In science today is not limited to emigration common term migration. In addition to the Sociology of Migration , many participate Social Sciences at the Migration Research .

History of emigration

Migration has always existed, either because existential threat posed by wars or natural disasters , or the hope of better economic conditions elsewhere. In research it is called push and pull factors : Push factors in the country of origin cause (Off) hike pressure, alleged or real benefits at the destination (host country) a (A) trek “sucked”.

This respect every emigration has two aspects, namely

the situation in the issuing country: population and talent loss, but also relief for scarce resources, and the acute loss of population,
the situation in the host country: Problems of acculturation (especially learning the language) and integration, but also immigration of labor, knowledge and cultural diversity.

Early Modern Times

In the early modern period , the forced emigration of entire populations was more widespread than the voluntary emigration. Examples include the expulsion of the Jews from Spain and the Moors after 1492, the Exulantenströme Protestant religious refugees since the 15th Century, the forced relocation of Native American tribes in the reserves and later the system of criminal colonies to call.

In the age of confessionalization (1550-1750) had many emigrants left their homeland for reasons of faith, for since the end of the 16th Century was the principle cuius regio eius religio enforced more stringent of the princes. Who did not want to convert to the religion of his country men, was forced to take the ius emigrandi, the right to deduct and claim to emigrate. This applied, for example, the Protestants in Bohemia, who emigrated in several waves from 1620 to approximately in 1680.

In the late 17th Century, there were several waves of emigration of Huguenots from France. When King Louis XIV in 1685, the Edict of Nantes , and thus picked up the Protestantism ban, which was widespread, especially in the South of France, thousands of members of the Protestant upper class left their homeland and settled mainly in England , the Netherlands , Prussia and other Protestant territories of the Holy Roman Empire at. Elector Frederick William of Brandenburg responded to the expulsion of the Huguenots with the Edict of Potsdam .
Middle Ages

During the Middle Ages people wandered in different waves from the Holy Roman Empire in the Slavic and Baltic populated areas east of it ( Ostsiedlung ). This led some to mixing, partly remained a minority of German settlers, partly assimilated the immigrants themselves – for the most part, however, it caused a total Germanization of the respective areas.

That is the reason for today’s eastern expansion of the German-speaking and its even more eastern extension to the Second World War. Large areas of the territory of the present five new federal states and the territories of the former German Reich of 1871 were by 1000 still not to the territory of the Holy Roman Empire and have been through the waves of emigration from the Reich to areas of the German-speaking world (some never, for as areas of Posen), and later to a large extent part of the Holy Roman Empire.

The settlement movement in the east also continued in modern times. However, under different conditions (see below), and the target areas were often located further and further to the east. They were not always connected with the German-speaking world and became islands of the German language (for example, Volga German, see below).
Thirty Years’ War and the postwar period

To strong emigration movements for economic reasons, it came after the Thirty Years’ War , as migrant workers from the overpopulated Switzerland (mainly in the cantons of Bern , Zurich , Thurgau and from areas of today’s canton of St. Gallen ) and from Vorarlberg in the destroyed, partially deserted areas South West Germany and were helped to colonize the desolate land again reside.
18 Century

Also in 1733 expelled from the Archbishopric of Salzburg Protestants were admitted in Prussia (see Salzburg exiles ). Since the 15th Century promoted some sovereigns as the Count of Wied or the King of Prussia the settlement of religious refugees within their Peuplierungspolitik through concessions, because they hoped to stimulate their economy.

In the second half of the 18th Century, many people emigrated from the German states to the east: by Hungary , Romania and Russia , also partly encouraged by the rulers. In some resettlement areas the language and culture of the original homeland for centuries has been preserved since the settlements were largely insulated from the outside, and especially marriage connections with residents of the host country were almost excluded. Meanwhile, the emigrants developed a significant economic force.

People who emigrated for religious reasons, moved beyond in the 18th Century in the United States to live in the freedom of religion granted there can be no reprisals. That was especially for small religious groups of interest. Above all, the state Pennsylvania attracted people of all religious denominations.
19 Century

In 19th Century emigration reached a peak in the German speaking. It was variously to mass emigration, which are closely linked to the economic development. Based on West Germany, one can speak of three stages of mass emigration:

Due to the eruption of the volcano Tambora in Indonesia , one of the most famous volcanic eruptions ever, so much ash was in the atmosphere flung it came to the northern hemisphere to extremely cold, wet summers and harvesting two years failed. Therefore, there was a large emigration movement. In West Germany, many people sailed on the Danube and settled in Southern Russia ( Bessarabia , in the area around Odessa and around Tbilisi in the Caucasus ). A smaller part of the emigrants in the United States sought a new home.

In turn triggered a continuing economic crisis, the largest mass emigration of the 19th Century from; Now the flows of emigrants directed almost exclusively to the United States. Where large tracts of land were opened up and colonized by the resident Indians fought and sales. An additional incentive to emigrate were the news of gold discoveries in California since 1848, which the California gold rush triggered.

To the economically motivated emigration came in 1848, a political, culminating after the failed revolution of March was. These emigrants are commonly called Forty-Eighters designated or “Forty”.

After 1855, the level of emigration subsided and came during the American Civil War almost completely (1861-1865) to a halt. Friedrich Naumann numbered 1916, the number of gone to the United States 1821-1912 German emigrants to 5.45 million. [2]

As part of the same wave of emigration of thousands of German and emigrated to the Australian colonies. Their number is estimated at about 70,000 to 80,000 – up to the First World War – estimated. [3] The Germans dominated the history of the continent sustainably.
The emigration office, painting by Felix Schlesinger

After 1880 there was once again a wave of emigration to the United States, but did not reach the strength of the other emigration movements. The emigration via Bremen was now mostly of Bremerhaven from. Since 1850 there has been a Auswandererhaus operated so that emigration could occur with ships that had more depth.
Eastern European immigration fraud in market

There are also reports of fraud in connection with the care of emigrants:

“In the years 1889/90 there were two agents of Hapag that a business office in Auschwitz (Oswiecim) were operated because of ongoing fraud to justice. ”

– Agnes Bretting: From the Old to the New World, in: f departure into the unknown, p 94 see Bibliography

The two agents Jacob and Simon Klausner heart bribed a large scale railroad conductor and officials, tax collectors and even cop, is reported. The walls of her agency in Auschwitz had it decorated with the German imperial eagle and a portrait of the emperor. There was a “Telegraph” – an old alarm clock. They were talking with hotels in Hamburg, working donors in the United States or even the “Emperor of America”. [4] policemen who were respected and feared by emigrants told – on behalf of the agents – that America is only about Hamburg was reached.

“Anyone who had a ticket or passage statement on a line other than the Hapag was harassed and forced some to forfeit this and the agency a” right “to buy.”

– Agnes Bretting: Dawn of Strangers, pp. 94 f

These emigrants believed that their emigration was illegal. Many young men also sought to avoid military service and had no courage to oppose the practices of the agency. If they did it anyway, they were “arrested by one of the corrupt cops, imprisoned, beaten and abused in other ways, until she gave in and followed the instructions to the agents.” This agency had in the late eighties of the 19th Century completed with approximately 12,400 people per year crossing agreements. [5] Widespread corruption in the Russian and the Austrian-Hungarian bureaucracy is responsible for the functioning of the system.

“In addition, most emigrants were a united front of traders shipped came from small villages and could neither read nor write. For these poor peasants America was the great hope of a better life, they knew nothing about this country, but because they combined so many wishes that they were willing to believe almost anything, especially the good news. … The highly specialized legal control system subjected professionally run emigration agencies … in Western Europe … did not apply to the Eastern European migration market. Unscrupulous agents attended there for the business of the German shipping lines were economically dependent now. ”

– Agnes Bretting: at: Dawn of Strangers, pp. 94 f

To protect the emigrants from exploitation by questionable agents and Logierwirte and to promote their integration in the country of immigration, emerged assistance and protection organizations such as the St. Raphael’s Club (now Raphaels-Werk) . The establishment of the Raphael Club on 13 September 1871 by the “Comité to protect German emigrants” at the suggestion of Limburg businessman Peter Paul Cahensly .
Image documents from 1900

Cover of Aschersleber indicator (1852)

Display to transport emigrants in Aschersleber Gazette (1852)

Os emigrantes, paintings by Antonio Rocco (1910)

German emigrants on their arrival in Brazil (late 19th century)

Emigration Center in Bremerhaven (1849-1865)

As it looked in 1882 in the interior (3rd class) from an emigrant house.

First half of 20th Century

In the period of inflation after the First World War, entire groups emigrated to Argentina and southern Brazil (state of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina ). Again, German-speaking settlements originated, an area in southern Brazil is still called New-Wuerttemberg.

After the takeover of the Nazi Party in 1933, the continued persecution of the Jews and a complete suppression of all political opposition (see eg Sopade / SPD in exile). People who realized early enough the danger possessed the necessary financial resources and professional flexibility, leaving the country more or less voluntarily. The film metropolis Hollywood benefited from the influx of creative personnel such as producers, directors and actors. Around 2,000 German-speaking filmmakers emigrated during the Nazi era. [6] The later film classic Casablanca (1942), for example, was primarily made ​​up of immigrant actors.

Famous emigrants example, were in the 20th Century , the scientist Albert Einstein , the writer Thomas Mann , Heinrich Mann , Oskar Maria Graf , Erich Maria Remarque , Anna Seghers , Ernst Karl Winter and Bertolt Brecht , the actress Marlene Dietrich , and the director Billy Wilder, who, during the “Third Reich” Germany because of the Nazis left and in the United States who emigrated. Among those who Germany during the Nazi time left forcibly were also many university professors, such as the Karlsruhe Professor of Physical Chemistry, Georg Bredig , the Cologne professor of Zoology Ernst Bresslau , the Aachen Professor of Chemistry , Walter Fuchs , Frankfurter Professor of Physics Karl Wilhelm Meissner , Berlin Professor of Physics Peter Pringsheim , the Breslau professor of physics Fritz Reiche and a Some 10,000 refugees from Germany and Austria were used during the Second World War in the British Army and fought against the Hitler regime so. [7]

After 1945, there was a cautious return migration (remigration) of individuals in the two German states. In western Germany, they experienced some open hostility that they had directly or indirectly related position abroad against the Nazi policy. Others opposed a re-migration on principle, partly they were never re-enter due to their experiences “on German soil” and also established the public.
Second half 20th Century

After 1945 , many people turn emigrated from Germany, for example, to Australia and South America. The cause was primarily the economic perspective of the post-war period.

Were added by the scientists at Allied Research limitations adopted that remained in force in Germany until 1955.

Among the emigrants were also perpetrators of the Nazi regime in Germany, the so-called to flee from prosecution rat line used.

In the years 1945-1990 three million people left the Soviet Zone and the result state, the GDR , as refugees from dissatisfaction with the targeted predominantly socialist model of society and into West Germany to live. Although the mass exodus was due to the establishment in 1961 of the Berlin Wall to be stopped, however, developed in 1989 and released dynamically again within months of the collapse of the political system from.
Reasons for emigration

Emigration, in almost all countries of the world for various reasons:

(especially for workers recruited in for better working and living conditions of Germany , for example, guest workers , want to escape professionals who can not find suitable work, or the high tax burden and social security contributions). (You are pejoratively called economic refugees.)
Avoidance of taxation by persons with high income or assets
for political reasons (for example, political dissidents and persecuted dissidents (mostly dictatorships) or police pursued criminals)
from religious or linguistic – cultural reasons
to increase the quality of life in a secured living standards (eg emigration of retirees due to better climatic conditions in the “sunny south” as in the Tuscany , to Majorca , the Canary Islands , or in the “Sunshine State”, Florida )
as refugees due to acute threat of war , civil war , natural disasters, famine or by selective expulsion
in earlier times because of slavery
because of waiting in-country family members and acquaintances.

It can be prevented (have been) by border fortifications that make a secret exit impossible (eg the Iron Curtain in Central Europe) but also by a lack of finances that would be required to bear the transportation cost (poverty).

It can also be promoted by the state to reduce the overall unemployment rate, for example, in the 1960s to get rid of in Turkey, or to target unwanted unemployed foreigners with their families, for example in Spain. [8] [9]

After the emigration Protection Act of 1975, advising interested in emigration in Germany is activity requires a permit. The incitement to emigration by business-like advertising is prohibited. Forbidden is a support of emigrants by companies, international organizations or foreign governments with assistance payment, unless the emigration takes place in countries of the European Community. Thus, the legislator wants to prevent that uncertainty is exploited financially by emigrants.
Emigration in different countries

There are classic immigration countries such as the countries of the so-called second and third world (developing countries). But also from countries of the First World hike from people, such as due to labor migration from Poland, Romania and Turkey. In addition, there are countries that do not have to limit emigration, because builds up due to its economic strength or other attractive living conditions, no or only minimal emigration pressure, for example in the United States .

2006 emigrated to the 18,242 German Switzerland , the United States 13,200 10,300 to Austria, Great Britain 9300, Poland 9100, 8,100 in Spain, 7,500 in France, 3,600 in Canada, 3,400 in the Netherlands and Turkey in 3300. A total of 144,815 emigrated German. [10] What in the media coverage [11] is sometimes suppressed, is the fact that about 128,000 German are drawn from abroad to Germany in the same period. Overall, the number of net emigration in 2005 so was only about 17,000, representing approximately 0.02% of the population. [12] Furthermore, there are significant differences within the Federal Republic, as increased emigration from the northern states takes place during the development reversed in Bavaria runs: The population continues to increase and emigration of native Bavaria and is considered unusual.

Absolutely – that is separate from the question of citizenship – have emigrated in the year 2009 734.000 people from Germany. In the same period, 721,000 migrated to Germany. Of which 606,000 were non-German citizenship. [13]

In 2005, 160,000 German have officially signed off. Estimated the actual number (including those who do not log out) to 250,000. This is the highest registered migration from the Federal Republic since 1950. [14] It is particularly well-trained professionals who emigrate. [15] [16] Klaus J. Bade , Professor of Modern History at the University of Osnabrück and migration expert, speaking in the . connection very pointedly of a “migratory suicidal situation” for Germany [17] Heinrich Alt , Federal Employment Agency ‘s board says (in relation to able-bodied persons): “There is currently going more residents go abroad than foreigners to Germany.” [ 18] Of particular importance to emigrate to Switzerland, the proximity of the country, which has German-language environment and in particular the Swiss tax law , the high assets less heavily taxed, as is the case in Germany (example: Boris Becker ) Switzerland has statistically. considered from year to year an increasing immigration of Germans.

Are devoted to the subject of emigration in Bremerhaven, Hamburg and Oberalben museums (see below) and in other sections of the museum as locations go to regional emigration or expulsion of the Jews from Germany a. Emigration is also a topic that is frequently discussed on television. So that showed German as a living history project in 2004 with the series ” Wind 8 “a highly acclaimed time travel from a total of 37 persons crossing as in the year 1855 the Atlantic with the traditional sailing ship Bremen. [19] The media scientist Thomas Waitz has a study [11] , which deals with the problematics of emigration on television, stated: “. [A] nlike most other social phenomena alone program formats with their own conventions and narrative strategies have in terms of emigration developed” [20]

In 2009, 40,000 people left Germany and moved to Turkey, many of them well educated. For academics is missing home feeling with 41.3 percent of the most frequently cited reason to move to Turkey. [21]

After 2008, 161,105 German immigrants was a record year, returned in 2009 officially only 154 989 of their German homeland back. Only 106,286 of them settled in other European countries, 23,462 emigrated to America, 14,592 in Asia, Africa and 5,198 to 4,894 in Australia and Oceania. [22] In 2009, however, returned a total of 114,700 German back to Germany. Of these, 74,417 returnees came from European countries, 18,718 from America, 12,685 from Asia, 4,715 from Africa and 3,378 from Australia and Oceania.

In 2010, the emigration of 141,000 German was still slightly decreasing. In the same year, however, left 529 606 Non-German the country. [23] The main countries of emigration of Germans were Switzerland (22,034), the United States (12,986), Austria (10,831), and Poland (9434). [24] 114 712 German returned to Germany. [25] Additionally, a 683 529 Non-immigrant German.

see Swedish emigration in the 19th Century

Between 1815 and 1850, the population in Sweden increased mainly due to increase in the country of 2.5 to 3.5 million. A solution of the resulting social problems offered emigration, which began in 1840 and peaked in 1880. To about 1.2 million in 1900 left Sweden the country.

Between the annexation of the Sudetenland in the Munich Agreement and occupation by the Third Reich many vulnerable people left the country, many of them had already once before fleeing the Nazis from Germany.

After the war, while many emigrants came back, some left disappointed but quickly regain their homeland. In addition to the expulsion of the German population, the country also lost thousands of Czechs and Slovaks . After the final communist takeover in 1948 fled to 1989 about half a million Czechs and Slovaks in the West (of which 60,000 immediately after the February 1948 about 245,000 after the suppression of the Prague Spring in 1968) and after the expulsions after the founding of Charter 77 in in 1977.

Categories: Uncategorized

Comments are closed.