Houston (pronounced / hju stən ː / ) is a city more populous the state of Texas and the fourth most populous of the United States . It is the seat of Harris County and has territory in the counties of Fort Bend and Montgomery . It was founded on 30 August of 1836 by brothers Augustus Chapman Allen and John Kirby Allen [3] along the Bay of Buffalo . It was incorporated on June 5 of 1837 , receiving the name of the president of the Republic of Texas , General Sam Houston , who led the Battle of San Jacinto , which took place 40 kilometers east of where the city was established.

Increased port activity and the railroad industry, combined with oil discovery in 1901 , led to the rapid population growth of the city. In half of the twentieth century , Houston became behave the Texas Medical Center – the largest cluster of medical and research institutions in the world – and Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center of NASA , where the Mission Control Center .

According to the national census of 2010 , the city has a population of 2 million people within an area of 1600 km ² [1] . Houston is the economic center of the metropolitan area of Greater Houston – the sixth largest in the country, with a population of about 5 million people.

Houston’s economy is based on a large industrial park in the sectors of energy , manufacturing , aeronautics , transportation and health . Only the city of New York awarded Houston the number of seats of the corporations listed in the Fortune 500 . [4] Commercialmente, Houston is classified as a global city and its area is an important center in the construction equipment tankers. The Port of Houston is the leading U.S. shipping in the waters and second in total load carried. [5] The city has a multicultural population with a large and growing international community. Home to many cultural institutions and exhibits – attracting more than 7 million visitors each year to the Houston Museum District . Houston has an active visual and performing arts in numerous plays in the Theater District and is one of few U.S. cities that offer year-round resident companies in all major performing arts.


Houston is a city hot in summer and cold in winter . The weather in Houston is unstable, because of its geographical location on a plain with few natural barriers against the winds and air masses. In the summer the temperatures can exceed 35 ° C, especially in July, since in winter temperatures drop on average to 12 ° C being the minimum reaches 7 ° C in January. The lowest temperature ever recorded in Houston was in December 1989 , -13 ° C. The largest was in 1962, in August, reaching 41 ° C. The average temperature in Houston is softened by the city’s proximity to the Gulf of Mexico . Compared to Dallas, Houston has lower average temperatures in summer and higher in winter.

Rainfall occurs year-round, more often in summer than in winter. The wettest month is June the city (174 mm) and the driest is February (76 mm).

According to the census of American in 2000 , Houston has 1,953,631 inhabitants, 717,945 homes and 457,330 families occupied. The population density of the city is 3 371.7 inhabitants / km ². The city has a total of 782 009 households, resulting in a density of 521.1 dwellings / km ². 49.27% ​​of the population are white , 25.31% are african-Americans , 5.31% are Asian , 0.44% are Native American , 0.06% are native Polynesians , 16.46% from other races, and 3.15% are descended from two or more races . 37.47% of the population are Hispanic of any race.
Downtown Houston, the city is the fourth most populous of the United States .

There are 717,945 households in the city occupied, of which 33.1% are home to people under 18 years of age, 43.2% harbor a couple, 15.3% are families with a female householder with no husband present as head of household, and 36.3% are non-families. 29.6% of all occupied dwellings are inhabited by only one person, and 6.2% of occupied homes in the city are inhabited by a single person aged 65 or older. On average, each household has 2.67 people occupied and each family consists of 3.39 members.

27.5% of the city population is less than 18 years of age, 11.2% are between 18 and 24 years of age, 33.8% are between 25 and 44 years of age, 19.1% are between 45 and 64 years old, and 8.4% are 65 years old or older. The average age of the population of the city is 31 years. For every 100 females there are 99.7 males. For every 100 females aged 18 or older there are 97.8 males.

The average annual income of an occupied residence is 36,616 U.S. dollars , and the median income for a family is $ 40,443. Males have an average annual income of $ 32,084, and females, $ 27,371. The per capita income for the city is $ 20,101. 19.2% of the city’s population and 16% of households in the city live below the poverty line. 26.1% of people aged 17 or younger and 14.3% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.
Government and politics
Houston City Hall .

The city of Houston has a mayor with greater powers, as a form of municipal government official. [9] Houston is an autonomous city and all municipal elections in the state of Texas are nonpartisan. [9] [10] The elected representatives are mayor , city controller and 14 members of the city council. [11] Since 2007 , the mayor of Houston is William “Bill” White , a Democrat elected on a nonpartisan vote, [12] which is in its third and last term. Houston’s mayor serves as the city’s chief administrator, chief executive officer and representative. He is responsible for the general management of the city and see if any laws are being enforced. [12] According to the result of the referendum of 1991 , in Houston, a mayor is elected for a mandate of two years and may be reelected for three consecutive times.

The city of Houston was criticized for having the worst recycling program among the 30 largest cities of the United States. [13] In October 2008, the city began a program, which aims to recycle organic material wasted. It is expected to save 82,000 tons annually, enough to fill the Chase Tower , the tallest building in town. [14]

Houston is recognized worldwide for its energy industry, especially oil and natural gas, as well as for biomedical research and aeronautics. The renewable energy sources, wind and solar, are also becoming popular economic bases in Houston. Houston Ship Channel is also an important economic base of the city . Because of these strengths, Houston is designated as a global city beta, by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and. [15] It is the fourth largest city in the United States and is also one of its main financial centers .

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