Los Angeles

Los Angeles (in English way of Los Angeles, Spanish for “The Angels”) is the second most populous city of the United States [2] (it is the most populous New York ). With a population of 3,792,621 inhabitants according to the 2010 census [2] , is the most populous city in the state of California and the western United States . In addition, the city spans 1302 km ² in Southern California and is ranked the 13th largest metropolitan area in the world , with 17.7 million people spread across much of the southern coast of California. The metropolitan Los Angeles-Long Beach-Santa Ana is home to 12,828,837 inhabitants. [3] Los Angeles is also the seat of Los Angeles County , the most populated and one of the counties most multicultural [4] of the United States. The city’s inhabitants are referred to as “Angelinos.”

Los Angeles was founded on September 4 of 1781 the Spanish governor Felipe de Neve, the toponym El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Angeles del Río de Portiuncula (The Town of Our Lady, Queen of the Angels of Rio de Portiuncula ). [5] It became part of Mexico in 1821 , following its independence from Spain . In 1848 , at the end of the Mexican-American War , Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo , becoming part of the United States , Mexico retained the territory of Baja California . Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4 of 1850 [1] , five months before California had become a state of the United States.

Often known by its initials, “LA”, and nicknamed “City of Angels”, Los Angeles is hoj, and a world center of business, international trade , entertainment , culture , media , fashion , science , technology and education . It is home to world-renowned institutions covering a broad range of professional and cultural fields and is one of the most important engines of the U.S. economy . In 2008 , Los Angeles was ranked the eighth most economically powerful city in the world by Forbes.com , and the third in the United States, behind only New York and Chicago [6] , a fact for which he is considered one of the largest and most important financial centers the world [7] [8] .

As home to Hollywood , is known as the “Entertainment Capital of the World” and is the world leader in creating films , production of television , video games and music recorded. The importance of the entertainment business to the city has led many celebrities living in Los Angeles and its suburbs .

History

Native Americans lived previously in the region before the arrival of the first explorers Europeans . Among the tribes, the Shoshone tribe had a village named Yang-na, where it is currently located downtown Los Angeles, along the Los Angeles River .

In 1542 , the explorer Portuguese João Rodrigues Cabrillo , exploring the west coast of North America on behalf of the crown Spanish discovered the village of Yang-na and was greeted by friendly natives. Cabrilho noted the location of the Indian village and continued his exploration. Until 1769 (for 227 years hence), the region remained forgotten by Europeans. That year, Gaspar de Portolá , a captain of the Spanish military force, and Juan Crespi, a Spanish missionary, led an expedition departing from San Diego bound for Monterey Bay . Eventually the group reached the village of Yang-na, where Crespi wrote in his diary, which was the place where the Indian village was a “wonderful place” and had all the necessary conditions for a large settlement. Gaspar and Crespi named the city as Nuestra Señora la Reina de Los Angeles of Portiuncula.
Spanish Colonization

The Spaniards soon began the settlement of the region, which is currently Los Angeles. First, in 1771 , the Spaniards founded Mission San Gabriel Arcangel, a small religious center, 8 kilometers east of the current city limits of Los Angeles. San Gabriel eventually became an important agricultural center, cultural and religious, and most important of eight other settlements created by the Spanish along the current California .

After the construction of San Gabriel, Felipe de Neve, the Spanish governor of California chose the place described as “wonderful” by Crespi to build a new city. Soldiers were sent by Philip to Mexico with orders to offer money, free land, animals and equipment for people who wanted to move to a new town to be created.

On September 4th of 1781 , a group of 44 people – 11 men, 11 women and 22 children , with two Spaniards in the group, with the remainder predominantly african-American, with some Native Americans and descendants of two or more ethnic-racial groups – arrived in the region described by Crespi. This group had left in February 1781. Upon arriving, they officially founded El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora Reina de los Angeles de la Porciuncula. Los Angeles is currently the only major American city to have been founded by a group of settlers composed predominantly african-Americans.

In 1800 , Los Angeles had about 315 inhabitants and an agrarian community, the city became a center of livestock. The Spaniards created huge plots of land that were sold to breeders. These lots housed thousands of cattle and horses .
It was Mexican

In 1821 , Mexico became independent from Spain. The Mexicans took control of all of California and the city of Los Angeles passed to Spanish control. Los Angeles and Monterey alternated as the capital of the Mexican territory of Alta California.

In 1826 , Jedediah Smith came to Los Angeles. He was the first person to reach the city from the coast Atlantic . In 1841 , American settlers began gradually to live in California, many of whom decided to settle in the city of Los Angeles. Still, Hispanics continued majority in the city.

In May 1846 , the United States and Mexico went to war. In August of the same year, U.S. troops captured Los Angeles. However, a great popular rebellion against the Americans developed among the Hispanic population of the city, and American troops retreated. In January 1847 , Los Angeles was definitely captured by the Americans. Having been defeated, Mexicans signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 , which ceded California to the United States.
1850 – 1.9 thousand
Los Angeles in 1869

On April 4 , 1850, Los Angeles was elevated to city status and, five months later, California would become the 31st U.S. state. Los Angeles then had about 1600 inhabitants and 73 km ², and its population grew slowly over the next two decades. Many former agricultural parcel owners went bankrupt because of the existing bureaucracy in the confirmation process owned by the American justice system.

Some Mexicans resisted the U.S. presence. In 1856 , Juan Flores led a major uprising in the city, threatening the southern Californian. He was eventually hanged in front of an audience of more than 3000 spectators. Another famous Mexican was Tiburcio Vasquez, famous among the Hispanic population by their deeds against the ” gringos . ” Captured in West Hollywood , he was found guilty of two murders in 1874 , and hanged in 1875 .

The Chinatown of Los Angeles was the scene of a popular uprising in 1871 . A fight between two Chinese gangs resulted in the death of a white person. This infuriated the white population of the city, and a contingent of 500 whites headed to Chinatown in the city, killing 19 men and boys of Chinese origin, only one of whom was involved in the death of the white person. The group also killed another white person who tried to protect these 19 people. Chinese homes and businesses were robbed. A trial proceeded, but only one person’s quota of 500 spent some time in prison.
Wells of oil in Los Angeles in 1896

In 1876 , a railroad was built between Los Angeles and San Francisco , which gave the Los Angeles access to the rest of the country via San Francisco. Another railroad, connecting Los Angeles to the east via U.S. Atchison , Topeka and Santa Fe was completed in 1885 , which led to fierce competition between the various companies who ran the railroad Los Angeles, San Francisco and Los Angeles railroad-Atchison. Both companies began to lower prices one-way ticket to the city, generating a growing stream of people coming from the rest of the United States to Los Angeles. The rate eventually reached a minimum of one U.S. dollar , and trains loaded with passengers from the interior and eastern U.S. came to Los Angeles daily. This competition also became a major center Los Angeles port , with products coming from the interior of the United States being shipped abroad via the port of Los Angeles. With all this going on, the population of the city of Los Angeles has grown dramatically, reaching 50 thousand in 1890 and doubling in just ten years, reaching 100 thousand in the arrival of the twentieth century .
1900th – 1950
Downtown Los Angeles in 1900

Gradual annexations of surrounding cities to Los Angeles meant that Los Angeles grew slowly in size in the years that followed 1890 . In 1910 , when the city of Hollywood was merged with the city of Los Angeles, this now has 233 km ².

A huge bay harbor was built between 1889 and 1913 . And, well the year of its inauguration in 1913, the Panama Canal was opened. Los Angeles has become a major port city west of the American continent quickly. Los Angeles continued to grow, now powered by the industry of petroleum , which was first found in the city in 1892 .

However, lack of sources of drinking water threatened the future of Los Angeles. With the city’s population growing rapidly, it was feared that soon the only source of drinking water for Los Angeles until then, the Los Angeles River , would not be sufficient to meet the growing demand of drinking water used by the population growth. The drinking water source closer to Los Angeles was 250 km from the city, in Owens River, which flows into Owens Lake, where it evaporates. Between 1899 to 1903 , Harrison Gray Otis acquired farms and properties that were in the area of River and Owens Lake. Also planned is the construction of the pipeline that would transport the water to the city.

In July 1905 , the Los Angeles Times published that the townspeople would not have any more water available, unless they buy government bonds, to finance the construction of the aqueduct. Drinking water distributed by water system was diverted to the system of sewage from the city, reducing the amount of potable water available, and creating artificial drought conditions. People were forbidden to water their gardens . In an election day, the townspeople agreed that 22.5 million U.S. dollars were invested in the construction of the aqueduct. With this money, and also thanks to a newly enacted federal law that allowed cities to acquire property outside its municipal boundaries, allowed Los Angeles to buy the lands acquired by Gray Otis. The aqueduct was inaugurated in 1913 and ensured once the supply of drinking water to the inhabitants of the city, and tripled the Los Angeles area, which now has 1165 km ² (now Los Angeles has 1215 km ²).
Panorama of the city of Los Angeles, in 1908
Panorama of the city of Los Angeles in 1908

Around 1920 , the tourism had become big business in Los Angeles. A pleasant climate, with high temperatures or mild throughout most of the year, attracted (and continue to attract today) thousands of tourists. Many of them liked both the city and its climate of that time decided to stay in Los Angeles. In these times, the oil industry of the city grew increasingly with the growing number of oil reserves being discovered. With all this, plants have settled in the city in droves, producing industrial products like airplanes , furniture, tires and other products.

Also in the 1920s , Los Angeles has implemented a law that restricted the purchase of homes by african-Americans, Mexicans, Asians and Jews, allowing people from ethnic-racial groups might acquire and live in a residence only in certain neighborhoods.

With the Great Depression , the socioeconomic conditions of Los Angeles have dropped dramatically, as thousands of people were fired from their jobs. There was mass bankruptcy of numerous commercial and industrial establishments, which further aggravated the crisis. However, the city’s population continued to grow rapidly since thousands of unemployed people, coming from all parts of the country, went to Los Angeles with the hope of finding a job – then even that the city has for the first time the mark of 1 million inhabitants. The city’s economy, meanwhile, would grow only when the United States entered the Second World War , fighting alongside the Allies. Factories and ports produced weapons, military units and other equipment used by the U.S. military, employing most of the workforce was unemployed until then due to the effects of the Great Depression, this growth continued to attract more people to Los Angeles, most , from the interior of the country. At the end of the war, Los Angeles had about 1.5 million inhabitants and was already the third most populous city in the United States, surpassing Philadelphia and leaving behind only New York and Chicago .
1950 – one thousand nine hundred ninety
The City of Los Angeles, shown here in 1931 , was built in 1928 and was the tallest structure in the city until 1964 , when height restrictions were removed

In the 1950s , Los Angeles was already a major commercial and industrial centers of the United States. After Detroit , Los Angeles manufactured more cars than any other American city, then of Akron , was the largest manufacturer of tires in the country, and after New York , was the largest center of American manufacturing clothes .

A law that proposed limits on the maximum height of buildings to be built in the city was rejected on 6 November of 1961 . This, plus the conflicting urban renewal in the neighborhood of Bunker Hill (quaint but decadent), culminated in the construction of several skyscrapers in Los Angeles since then until the 1990s .

Several expressways were built from the 1940s , connecting Los Angeles with their suburbs . The small and inefficient system of public transport in the city (in a centralized system rail passenger, and a few lines of trams and light rail ) was deactivated in 1950 (down by General Motors ), making Los Angeles a city facing the car.

With more factories being built and more cars passing in the streets of Los Angeles, the air pollution has become a serious problem in Los Angeles, especially on days with little or no wind, where the pollution generated by factories and vehicles just piling up near the ground, causing the formation of smog .

In 1989 , a new master plan , with a length of 20 years, was implemented in the city, whose goal was to reduce the high levels of air pollution in the city. In that same decade, we built a system of subway and light rail in an attempt to reduce constantementes jams that occur on motorways in the city, and reduce air pollution generated by vehicles.
Downtown Los Angeles saw a strong development in the 1980s and 1990s, including the construction of some of the tallest skyscrapers in the city
1990 – current times

In 1990, Los Angeles finally became second most populous city in the United States (surpassing Chicago and second only to New York ); However, the 1990s was marked by intense racial conflicts, exacerbated by police oppression. The incident is the best known of Rodney King , an african american driver, who was stopped by four police officers in the city on March 3 of 1991 . The police officers beat King, who suffered serious injuries. The officers were indicted, but none have been convicted, even with the evidence of the crime having been recorded on video . The process carried out in a white suburb of Los Angeles, and all the jurors were white. The verdict of the case resulted in a great popular upheaval in the streets of the city, especially in neighborhoods african Americans. As a result, 53 people died, 2400 were injured and there were more than one billion dollars in damage. The cops were processed again in 1993 . Two of them were sentenced to two years in prison, and the other two acquitted. The city of Los Angeles would later ordered to pay damages of 3.75 million U.S. dollars to Rodney King.

The years since 2000, the city established itself as the second most populous in the United States (and continues today, reaching 3,700,000 inhabitants in 2010), as well as one of the most important and influential urban centers, financial and cultural world.
Geography
Geographical
Satellite view of the urbanized area of metropolitan Los Angeles

Los Angeles is located in the southwestern United States , and in the southwestern U.S. state of California , on the coast of the Pacific Ocean . It lies approximately 560 km south of the city of San Francisco and 210 miles northeast of San Diego and the United States-Mexico border .

According to the United States Census Bureau , the city has an area of 1302 km ² , where 1 213.8 km ² are covered by land and 88.1 square miles of water [2] . Depending on the extent of its total area, Los Angeles is currently one of the largest American cities in the area, although at the beginning of the twentieth century , the city has had only a small fraction of the current area. The municipal boundaries of Los Angeles grew with the gradual annexation of neighboring cities like Hollywood , San Pedro , Van Nuys and Westwood , currently districts of the city of Los Angeles.

The greatest distance between two points on the north-south Los Angeles is 71 miles, and most points between two east-west is 44 miles. Are about 550 km in municipal boundaries with other neighboring cities. In your area of 1223 km ², 1214.9 km ² are on land, and 75.7 km ² in bodies of water . The highest point in the city is Mount Sister Elsie (Sister Elsie Peak, in English ), which has an altitude of about 1680 meters. Located in a very rugged terrain, the average elevation of Los Angeles is 84 meters, being a minimum of 0 meters on the beaches of Santa Ana , and a maximum of 1680 meters on Mount Sister Elsie.

The earthquakes are a daily threat in Los Angeles. The last earthquake in the city is not as tragic as that of San Francisco, but nothing prevents a devastating tremor happening in the city.

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