New York City

The City of New York, including New York, outdated Neuyork [1] , nicknamed The Big Apple (The Big Apple)) is a cosmopolitan city on the east coast of the United States . It is located in the state of New York and has more than eight million inhabitants, the most populous city in the United States. [2]

The area includes New York City’s five boroughs above mentioned districts Manhattan , The Bronx , Brooklyn , Queens and Staten Iceland . These are further divided into districts. The New York metropolitan area with a population of 18.9 million [3] is one of the most important economic areas and trading centers in the world, home to many international companies and organizations such as the United Nations and major seaport on the East Coast. The city enjoys with its wealth of sights, the 500 galleries, 200 museums, more than 150 theaters and more than 18,000 restaurants worldwide reputation in the fields of art and culture, and recorded each year about 50 million people [4] . According to Forbes Magazine, New York City is the city with the highest cost of living in the United States and one of the most expensive cities in the world. [5]

After 1524 Giovanni da Verrazzano in 1609 and Henry Hudson explored the area of present-day New York, settled in 1610 from Dutch merchants at the southern tip of the island of Manna-Hatta and soon after on the western tip of Long Iceland ., today’s Brooklyn It was only in 1626 bought Peter Minuit the locals, probably Lenni-Lenape Indians , the island “Manna-hatta” from for goods worth 60 guilders. The thus established settlement afterwards received the name of Nieuw Amsterdam and was first capital of the colony of New Netherland until it was conquered in 1664 by the British and the city got the intervening valid name. [6] Her rise to world city began in 1825 with the completion of the Erie Canal .

Geographical location

New York from the island of Manhattan extended, which is his center today and as pointed promontory between Hudson and East River pushes forward. It is located on 40.42 degrees north latitude and 74.00 degrees west longitude on the east coast of the United States in the New York Bay and adjacent to Jersey City . It surrounds the mouth of the Hudson River and the East River to the Atlantic Ocean and rises an average of six meters above the sea level . Buildings and infrastructure of the city reach of the river banks in a wide range of suburbs in other cities over and extend far into the country. The rivers divide the communities of Manhattan, Bronx , Brooklyn , Queens and Staten Iceland (formerly Richmond). The city has a land area of ​​785.6 km ² (891.85 km ² Berlin), throughout the entire built-up area (agglomeration) of 8683.2 km ². The New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Iceland Metropolitan Statistical Area covers 17,405 km ², slightly further gripped New York-Newark-Bridgeport Combined Statistical Area 30,671 km ² (the state of Brandenburg 29478.61 km ²).
Satellite view of New York City

Manhattan is on rocky ground, which makes it possible to build higher buildings. It is surrounded by numerous natural harbors that can be started by deep-draft vessels. Hudson opens the way to the most important natural hinterland and makes it through the Mohawk River and the Lake Champlain to the Great Lakes in the north and the St. Lawrence River to reach the north. South of the area, the stronger by icebergs is compromised, the main mass of European immigrants have settled. Thanks to this geographical conditions New York could achieve a prominent position in the U.S. and the world economy. [7]
Geology

The area around the city of New York is a part of the Atlantic coastal plain . Further into the countryside, the landscape gradually changes into rolling hills. On Long Iceland and along the coast of New Jersey to the south there are sandy beaches.

The coastal plain is located in the New York, as last foothills of the southern Appalachians to Jacksonville . It consists of sands and clays, mainly of moraines and fluvial deposits originate. Long, spits and hooks are the shallow, richly structured estuaries ( Delaware Bay upstream) and river estuaries, hinterland followed by a broad tidal marsh belt. At about the latitude of New York, in Long Iceland, the coastal plain dive under the sea.
Boroughs
→ Main article: Administrative divisions of New York City

The city is divided into five municipalities ( boroughs split), each of which a circle ( County ) of the State of New York equivalent. Each borough is governed by a Borough President.

Manhattan (New York County) has 1,601,948 inhabitants (as of 2011 [8] ) and a land area of 59.5 km ². The community consists mainly of the island of Manhattan Iceland, by the Hudson River to the west, the East River to the east and the Harlem River flows around the Northeast, as well as other smaller islands, including Roosevelt, Iceland , Belmont Iceland , governors Iceland and a small piece from the mainland, Marble Hill. Marble Hill was until the construction of the Harlem River Ship Canal in the 19th Century still part of Manhattan Iceland.

Brooklyn (Kings County) has 2,532,645 inhabitants, making it the most populous municipality in New York. It is located southeast of the city, on the western end of Long Island , has an area of 182.9 km ². The city of Brooklyn was named after the Dutch town Breukelen named and incorporated in 1898 in New York City.

Queens (Queens County) has 2,247,848 inhabitants and covers an area of 282.9 km ², the largest of the five boroughs of New York. It is located in the west of the island of Long Iceland . Queens was established on 1 Established in November 1683, when the colony of New York was divided into counties. 1898, the district was annexed to New York. There are also two of the largest airports in New York, which are John F. Kennedy International Airport and LaGuardia Airport .

The Bronx (Bronx County) has 1,392,002 inhabitants and an area of 108.9 km ². The formerly independent city is since 1 January 1874, the northernmost community of New York. It was named after Jonas Bronck , an emigrant from today’s Sweden and the first settlers in the area, named. It also goes back to the fact that in this part of New York City always preceded by the article, as in “The Bronx”. At that time, was in fact to announce a visit to the farm of Jonas Bronck, said: “We are going to the Bronck”. Although today the name is spelled differently, but the prefixing of the article was retained. Moreover, the Bronx is the only district of New York, which is on the mainland.

Staten Iceland (Richmond County) has 470 467 inhabitants and a land area of 151.5 km ². It lies south and west of the island of Manhattan on Long Iceland located neighborhood Brooklyn. With Brooklyn on the island is the toll Verrazano-Narrows Bridge connected with Manhattan by the free Staten Iceland Ferry . In the west and north, the island is separated by the narrow Arthur Kill and the Kill Van Kull from New Jersey. To New Jersey the lead Goethals Bridge , the Bayonne Bridge and Outerbridge Crossing . The highest point of the island, the Todt Hill is also at the same time the highest point of the city of New York. Previously, the entire city’s sewage was deposited on Staten Iceland, which today makes up partially for problems with odor. Even the rubble of the World Trade Center were brought to Staten Iceland.
Climate

The city is located in the temperate climate zone . Weather in New York is mainly influenced by the continental land masses in the West. Summers are generally warm and tropical, the winter cold.

The temperature rises in July and August often exceed 30 ° C, this is a high humidity with some heavy rainfall, thunderstorms often what makes the summer weather often quite unpleasant. In January, the values ​​can fall below -20 ° C, where it is often sunny. Occasionally brings marine air (the North Easters – the north-east wind) moisture from the Atlantic Ocean as well as strong winds and heavy rain or snowfall.

The average annual temperature is 12.5 ° C and the mean annual rainfall 1056.4 mm. The warmest month is July with an average of 24.7 ° C and the coldest January with -0.4 ° C on average. Most precipitation falls in the month of April with an average of 99.1 millimeters, the fewest in October at 73.2 millimeters on average.

The lowest ever recorded temperature is -26 ° C in January and the highest at 41 ° C in July.

The water temperatures on the New York coast fluctuate between an average of 3 ° C and 23 ° C.

Population

New York City is 8.2 million people, the largest city in the United States and one of the largest cities in the world. The population has since the beginning of the 20th to Century doubled. Since 1825, the city is the location on the Atlantic Ocean and the waterway of the Hudson River inland the starting point for immigrants from all over the world. The further development made New York the largest industrial city and financial hub.

The most important institutions here are the largest stock exchange in the world, the New York Stock Exchange , and many banks, even from abroad, by the very many jobs have been created (mainly for specialists). Other jobs, especially in small businesses services are usually filled by low-income earners.

The population of the city is divided into several layers. The upper class lives mostly outside the city or in the expensive district of Manhattan. In New York, there are numerous measures of social housing for vulnerable people and families and manages the municipal housing company NYCHA total of 178,000 social housing, where about 400,000 people. [10]
Demographics

In the City of New York 8.24491 million inhabitants (2011). [11] The population density is 10,356 persons per km ². The agglomeration New York-Newark has 18,351,295 inhabitants with a population density of 5,319 inhabitants per km ² (as of 2010). [12] In the metropolitan area New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Iceland 18,897,109 people live (April 1, 2010), [3] which corresponds with an area of 17,405 km 2 a population density of 1,086 inhabitants per km ². The New York-Newark-Bridgeport Combined Statistical Area even has 22,085,649 inhabitants (1 April 2010) [13] and thus a population density of 720 inhabitants per km ².

The following overview shows the numbers of inhabitants by the respective territorial status. To 1775 are estimates from 1790 to 2010 census results to the United States Census Bureau .

Origin of the population and

Die Zusammensetzung der Bevölkerung New Yorks ist sehr heterogen und spiegelt alle Einwanderungswellen der amerikanischen Geschichte wider. Die größte Gruppe sind mit 35 % nicht-hispanische Weiße (Kaukasier). Zwei von fünf Einwohnern von New York sind nicht in den USA geboren worden; die meisten der europäischstämmigen Einwanderer stammen aus Italien (8 %), Irland (5 %) und Deutschland (3 %). Etwa 972.000 Einwohner sind dabei jüdischen Glaubens oder jüdischer Abstammung , die somit 12 % der Gesamtbevölkerung ausmachen. In Manhattan beträgt der Anteil sogar etwa 20 %. New York ist damit die Stadt mit der größten jüdischen Gemeinde der Welt, da hier mehr Juden leben, als ganz Jerusalem Einwohner hat.

Der Anteil der nicht-hispanischen Schwarzen bzw. Afroamerikaner beträgt 24 % und ist ebenso wie der der Weißen entsprechend dem gesamtamerikanischen Trend rückläufig. Hingegen bilden Hispanics (Latinos) mit insgesamt 27 % inzwischen die zweitgrößte Bevölkerungsgruppe. Die Asiaten sind die am stärksten wachsende Gruppe und machen mittlerweile 12 % der Bevölkerung New Yorks aus.

Bemerkenswert ist, dass Afroamerikaner, Weiße, Asiaten und Hispanics in New York nicht diffus verteilt leben, sondern sich jeweils tendenziell in bestimmten Stadtquartieren konzentrieren. So ist Manhattan (Downtown und Midtown bis zum Central Park) mit Ausnahme von Chinatown ganz überwiegend ein Wohngebiet der Weißen, im nordwestlichen Brooklyn leben überwiegend Schwarze, ebenso wie in den Straßenzügen nördlich des Central Park (Harlem); in den nordwestlichen Bezirken von Queens, südlich von La Guardia, siedeln überwiegend Latinos und vereinzelt Asiaten; in der Bronx wohnen kaum Weiße, sondern mehrheitlich Hispanics und zum Teil Schwarze, und im Süden von Brooklyn ( Coney Island ) leben insbesondere russischstämmige Menschen. [14] In den letzten Jahren hat es hier allerdings teilweise gegenläufige Tendenzen gegeben; so beträgt der Anteil der Afroamerikaner unter den Einwohnern von Harlem inzwischen weniger als 50 %, da Latinos und Weiße in das lange Zeit fast ausschließlich von Schwarzen bewohnte Viertel gezogen sind.

40.6% of residents of New York are not born in the United States, of which 19.2% in Latin America (excluding Puerto Rico), 9.4% in Asia and 6.4% in Europe.

First expeditions into the territory of present-day New York had already found in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazano and 1609 by Henry Hudson instead. From 1610 Dutch merchants began a lucrative fur trade with the Indians living there. On 27 March 1614 was the newly founded Compagnie van Nieuwnederlant (New Netherland-company) of the States General a monopoly on trade in the area.

In October 1618, ten months after the trade monopoly, the company applied for a new charter . At this time of the States General, but already the formation of a new company, the Dutch West India Company (WIC), considered. On 3 June 1621 received the WIC of the Republic of the Seven United Provinces a charter for the sole trade in America. Colonization began in 1624, when 30 Dutch families on the island of Manhattan and in the area of ​​the Delaware settled.

1626 bought Peter Minuit the locals, probably a branch of the Lenni-Lenape Indians , who called the island “Manna-hatta” the island for 60 guilders from. The newly founded settlement was called New Amsterdam and became the capital of the colony of New Netherland . [15] In the settlement soon chaotic conditions prevailed. Under the rule of corrupt governors, crime increased enormously.

Decided in 1647, the Dutch West India Company, to restore order. This task should Peter Stuyvesant accept. During his 17-year tenure as governor, the first hospital, the first jail and the first school was built. As a protection against robbery he had built in 1652 in the north of the city across the island a wall that should give the road running alongside their names later, the Wall Street . On 2 February 1653 Nieuw Amsterdam received municipal rights.

During the Second Anglo-Dutch naval war the city surrendered on 27 August 1664 without a fight one of Richard Nicolls led fleet of Royal Navy . The British renamed the city and the colony Newe York to their damaligem commander James , Duke of York , brother of Charles’ II of England , who was later to become king himself. 1667, the Dutch withdrew all claims to the colony in the Peace of Breda on where them for the rights to Suriname were assured. In the following, the English and the Dutch War, the Dutch took in 1673 by Cornelis Evertsen the colony briefly again before the country finally by signing the Treaty of Westminster on 19 Had to leave in February 1674.
18 Century

In the 18th Century New York was actively involved in the independence movement. In 1776 it was briefly the headquarters of George Washington was, but then the British occupied. The latter left the city in 1783, after American independence was recognized by European countries including the UK. In the same year a fire destroyed large parts of New York. 1785 devastated once again a fire disaster other areas of the city.

From 1788 to 1790, New York was capital of the United States . George Washington was sworn in as the first president here in 1789. In the economically difficult times after the war, securities traders founded on 17 May 1792 the New York Stock Exchange . 1797 Albany instead of New York the capital of the State of New York determined and it still is today.
19 Century

Beginning of the 19th Century, the city grew more rapidly than ever before. Decided in 1811, the city planners with the Commissioners’ plan , to cover the entire island of Manhattan, of which only the southern tip was built with a grid-like road network. With a few exceptions – the most important is the Broadway – this plan was implemented.

A turning point in the history of the city was the completion of the Erie Canal in 1825. A connection between New York, it was the Great Lakes and thus the Midwest created. Overnight, the city became the largest trading center on the East Coast.

At the same time the urban image changed. To date stamped so-called “brownstone houses” (usually two to four storey houses from bricks ) the cityscape. With the expansion and the still scarce in new residential area one led a large multi-storey apartment buildings. This opulently decorated houses, how to, among other things in it today Upper West Side at Broadway and 70th Street to 74th Street can see, possessed luxurious amenities, to central dining rooms , where residents also met on social occasions. To increase confidence in the new location, the city planners deliberately settled at impressive institutions in the new urban spaces, many of whom currently on the National Historic Landmarks are from New York. One example is the monumental bank building Broadway and 73rd Street or the Carnegie Hall at the corner of 57th Street and 7th Avenue .

However, despite the city were ascent through the large population growth, poverty and lack of a sewage system in the slums epidemics favors. So it was in 1832 and 1849 cholera epidemics in 1837 spread typhoid and in 1842 typhus . [16] [17] The economic crisis of 1837 had devastating effects, a third of the workers and 10 percent of the population was unemployed at the time and there was several riots against the conditions. [18]

Middle of the 19th Century, plans for a large city park, the so-called Central Park . Its construction began in 1858 and for 1866 were mostly completed. In the second half of the 19th Century took the stream of immigrants steadily. Irish , Italian , German , all came in the hope of a better life, but most spent many years in slums ( slums ) as Five Points and the Bowery . Conflicts erupted partly by force, as in the Draft Riots that plunged the city into chaos, the largest in its history. With the growth of the management had to be changed.

1898 included the present five boroughs Manhattan, Brooklyn, Richmond (now Staten Iceland), Queens and the Bronx to Greater New York. Parts of the Bronx were already in 1874 the city of New York. Brooklyn was before the merger, already one of the largest cities in the country. To date, the individual parts of the city have preserved a certain independence within the municipalities in the administration and in the self-understanding of their inhabitants. For example, Little Italy, the name of a district, which is inhabited primarily by Italian-born Americans.
20 Century

In the first half of the 20th Century, the city became a center of industry and commerce. In the “Roaring Twenties” became New York Stock Exchange in a rush, on 24 October 1929, the Black Thursday , was an abrupt end. The economic crisis hit New York hard and the incompetent, corrupt city government of Mayor Jimmy Walker was completely overwhelmed and over-indebted the city.

The unemployment rate rose to over 25%. People lost their jobs and their homes. The turning point came by the Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia launched in 1933 after his election materials and construction programs. Beginning of the 20th Century saw the first skyscrapers , such as the Woolworth Building (1913), the Empire State Building (1931) and the Chrysler Building (1930), who became landmarks of the city.

After the war, the United States entered the Second World War, New York was from September 1942 starting point of important SC and HX convoys to Great Britain . The two major transatlantic convoy series existed until May 1945.

After the war, it was a short downhill fast optimistic phase. The middle class moved to the suburbs, and the industry from wandering. Like many other U.S. cities also suffered from New York in the 1960 race riots in years. In the 1970s, then was rampant crime, and in 1975 the city had its bankruptcy explain. In 1977, as a 25-hour power failure, where there was looting and fires. This power failure made ​​the dilapidated state of the city for all clearly visible. [19] Ed Koch restored during his tenure as mayor (1978-1989), the city budget. In the economic boom of the 1980s, Wall Street once again a leading role in the financial world took. In the 1990s, the popular mayor did Rudolph Giuliani with the so-called zero tolerance strategy substantial success, the crime rate fell dramatically, with the participation of civil protection organization Guardian Angels . The total number of crimes decreased between 1990 and 2007 by 77%, [20] so that New York City is currently not even one of the 200 American cities with the highest crime rate. However, critics objected that Giuliani did not eliminate the crime, but merely pushed into the countryside. Anyway: Due to the massively improved security and economic recovery was again fashionable to live in New York. Thus, the resident population alone grew in the 1990s from 7.3 million to over 8 million.
21 Century

At 11 September 2001 was the World Trade Center by a (WTC) terrorist attack destroyed on an unprecedented scale. The complex was in 1993 by a bomb in the underground garage of the complex were shaken (with six dead and hundreds injured). It took until May 2002 until the cleanup at the so-called Ground Zero , the site on which the World Trade Center had stood, could be terminated. Ground Zero is a memorial and the 541-meter-high One World Trade Center created to be the tallest building in the city after its completion (currently this is again the Empire State Building). The construction began in 2006, in 2013 the opening is planned. The memorial was finished by 2011 in parts and is expected to be complete in 2013. A new station at the World Trade Center is under construction and should also be completed by 2013. Since the attacks applies to all of New York permanently a heightened state of alert, the police presence was again increased massively.

The cash deficit of the town was the end of 2001, more than seven billion dollars . End of 2002, more tourists came to New York for it than in the years before the terrorist attacks. In some regions up to three weeks of continuous power outage in 2003 put large parts of North America including New York lame. The cost of living in the city have risen massively since 2001 and provide the highest by far in the United States represents, this is especially true for Manhattan.

The Congress of the Republican Party took place in 2004 at Madison Square Garden in New York. 2004 was also the decision of the mentioned Memorial – the memorial to the victims of the terrorist attacks in 2001 – at Ground Zero. The tender was awarded to the architect Michael Arad and landscape architect Max Bond and Peter Walker with her ​​design “Reflecting Absence” (The reflection of the absence). The memorial will consist of several water basins, a paved stone field and different groups of trees, which symbolize the broader life after the destruction of the WTC. An underground museum will be established to remember the victims and the destruction. On the last remains of the WTC buildings past, visitors will enter the museum.

On 29 and 30 October 2012 established the Hurricane Sandy in New York, severe damage to. In the city 47 people were killed by the impact of the storm. [21] Because the storm surge with a spring tide met, the level reached in Battery Park , a new high, the previous record while passing by at the southern tip of Manhattan Hurricane Donna exceeded 1960. As a result of several tunnels were for the first time in over 100 years, New York City Subway flooded. The Hudson River temporarily stepped over the banks and flooded some roads. [22] The New York Stock Exchange was the first time since 1888 ( Big snow storm ), two days in a row closed due to bad weather. [23]
Politics
City government
The New York City Hall is the oldest City Hall in the U.S., which still fulfills its original purpose.
The Manhattan Municipal Building was built after the 1898 union of the neighborhoods of New York City
View from Rockefeller Center in Midtown and Lower Manhattan
Night in Manhattan
The Lower Manhattan skyline in the distance

At the head of the city government of New York is the mayor (Mayor), who is elected by the people for a term of four years. He appointed him as head of the Commissioners responsible management parts (Alderman of the departments). The City Council (City Council) consists of 51 members and is also elected every four years. Both the mayor and the members of the Council may be elected only for three consecutive terms, then they can be after four years but once again stand for election. New York City has its own responsibilities for schools, prisons, libraries, public safety, recreational facilities, water supply and sanitation and public welfare. [24]

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