New York

New York or New York (in English : New York) is the most populous city in the United States [4] and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area , one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world . [5] [6] [7] It is also the third most populous city in America , behind São Paulo and Mexico City . The city has a significant impact on trade , finance , media , art , fashion , research , technology , education and entertainment for the whole planet. New York is home to the headquarters of the United Nations (UN), [8] and is an important center for international affairs and widely regarded as the cultural capital of the world. [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] The city ​​is also referred to as the City of New York [14] (in English : New York City) to distinguish it from the state of New York , of which it is part. [15]

Located in one of the largest natural harbors in the world , [16] New York City consists of five boroughs : Bronx , Brooklyn , Manhattan , Queens and Staten Island . [17] With a population that, according to the U.S. Census of 2010 , reaches 8,175,133 inhabitants, [2] distributed on a land area of only 784 km ² [2] [18] [19] . New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States [20] and the second most densely populated city of the state of New York . With about 800 languages ​​spoken in different territory, New York is the city with the greatest linguistic diversity in the world. [21] The population of the metropolitan area of New York is the largest in the U.S., estimated at 18.9 million people distributed in about 17,400 km ². [22] [23]

New York is rooted in its founding in 1624 as a gas trade by settlers Dutch , being named New Amsterdam in 1626. [24] The city and its surroundings were taken by the Kingdom of England in 1664 [25] [26] , becoming part of the British Empire , and his name was changed to New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the then Duke of York (the future King James II of England) . [27] [ 28] New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, [29] and the country’s largest city since 1790. [30] The Statue of Liberty has received millions of immigrants who came to America by ship at the end of the century nineteenth and early twentieth century. [31]

Many districts and landmarks in New York became well known thanks to its nearly 50 million annual visitors. [32] The Times Square , dubbed “the crossroads of the world”, [33] [34] [35] [36] is the illuminated region which concentrate the famous Broadway theaters , [37] being one of the busiest pedestrian intersections in the world [38] and an important center of the entertainment world. [39] The city houses some of the bridges, skyscrapers Skyscrapers [40] and most renowned parks in the world. The New York financial district, anchored by Wall Street in Lower Manhattan , serves as one of the largest financial centers in the world, [41] [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] [47] and is home the Stock Exchange of New York , the largest stock exchange in the world by total market capitalization of its listed companies. [48] The real estate market in Manhattan is among the most prized and expensive in the world. [49] The Chinatown of Manhattan incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese in the West . [50] Unlike most systems of metro in the world, the Metropolitan New York is designed to provide service 24 hours a day, 7 days a week . [51] Numerous colleges and universities are located in New York, including Columbia University , the New York University and Rockefeller University , which are ranked among the top 100 in the world.

The region was inhabited by Native American tribes of the Lenape at the time of its European discovery in 1524 [53] by Giovanni da Verrazano , an explorer Florentine in the service of the crown French , who called it “Nouvelle Angoulême” (New Angoulême) . [54] The settlement Europe began with the founding of a Dutch colony of trade in furs , which was later called “Nieuw Amsterdam” ( New Amsterdam ), on the southern tip of Manhattan in 1614. The Dutch colonial Director-General Peter Minuit purchased the island of Manhattan from the Lenape in 1626 for the value of 60 guilders , [55] (about U.S. $ 1000 in 2006), [56] Another legend says that Manhattan was purchased for $ 24 worth of glass beads. [57] [58]

In 1664, the city was handed over to the English and renamed “New York” by the Duke of York and Albany . [59] At the end of the Anglo-Dutch War , the Dutch gained control of the island of Run (then an active more valuable) in exchange for control of English in New Amsterdam (New York) in North America . Several intertribal wars among the Native Americans and some epidemics caused by the arrival of Europeans led to considerable losses for the Lenape population between the years 1660 and 1670. [60] In 1700, the Lenape population had diminished to only 200 members. [61 ] In 1702, the city lost 10% of its population to yellow fever . [62] New York underwent no fewer than seven important yellow fever epidemics in the period being 1702 and 1800. [63]

New York grew in importance as a trading port while under the British rule . The city hosted the influential trial of John Peter Zenger in 1735, helping to establish the freedom of the press in North America . In 1754, the Columbia University was founded under charter by George II of Great Britain as King’s College in Lower Manhattan . [64] The Stamp Act Congress met in New York in October 1765, just as the Sons of Liberty organized in the city, escaramuçando over the next ten years with British troops stationed there. [65]

During the American Revolution , the Battle of Long Island , the largest battle in this war, was fought in August 1776 entirely on land currently occupied by the borough of Brooklyn [66] . After the battle, in which the Americans were routed, leaving subsequent smaller battles follow the same course, the city became the British political and military base of operations in North America. The city was a haven for loyalists , until the war ended in 1783. The only attempt at a peaceful solution to the war took place at the Conference House on Staten Island between American delegates including Benjamin Franklin , and General British Lord Howe on September 11, 1776. Shortly after the beginning of British occupation, there was the Great Fire of New York , a large conflagration which destroyed about a quarter of the buildings in the city, including Trinity Church . [67]
Painting of Manhattan and New York City in 1873.

The assembly of the Congress of the Confederation made ​​New York the national capital in 1785, shortly after the war. New York was the last capital of the United States under the Articles of Confederation and the first capital under the U.S. Constitution . In 1789, the first U.S. president , George Washington , was inaugurated, the first United States Congress and the Supreme Court of the United States were assembled for the first time and the Charter of Rights of the United States was drafted, all at Federal Hall on Wall Street . [68]

In the nineteenth century , the city was transformed by immigration and development. [69] A visionary development proposal, the Commissioners’ Plan of 1811 , expanded the “grid of streets” throughout Manhattan and the opening of the Erie Canal in 1819, linking the Atlantic to the vast agricultural markets within the U.S.. [70] The local politics fell under the domination of Tammany Hall , a political machine supported by immigrant Irish . [71] Several prominent American literary figures lived in New York during the 1830s and 1840s, including William Cullen Bryant , Washington Irving , Herman Melville , Rufus Wilmot Griswold , John Keese , Nathaniel Parker Willis , and Edgar Allan Poe . Members of the old aristocracy dealer did lobby for the creation of Central Park , which became the first landscaped park in an American city in 1857. A significant black population also existed free in Manhattan and Brooklyn . Slaves existed in New York in 1827, but during the 1830s, New York became a center of activism abolitionist in interracial North . The black population of New York was over 16,000 people in 1840. [72] The Great Irish Famine brought a large influx of immigrant Irish and, in 1860, one in four New Yorkers – over 200,000 – had been born in Ireland . [73]

The revolt over conscription during the American Civil War (1861-1865) led to the riots of 1863 , one of the worst incidents of civil unrest in American history. [74]
Downtown Manhattan in 1932 , seen from Rockefeller Center .
Lower Manhattan , New York, 1942 .

In 1898, the city of New York got its current formation, with the consolidation of Brooklyn who, until then, was a separate city, along with the County of New York, which at the time included parts of the Bronx , the County of Richmond and part western county of Queens . [75] The opening of the subway in 1904 helped to connect the whole city. In the first half of the twentieth century, the city became a world center for industry, commerce and communication. However, this development did not come without a price. In 1904, the steamship General Slocum caught fire in the East River , killing 1,021 people on board. [76]

In 1911, the fire in the Triangle Shirtwaist factory , the city’s worst industrial disaster until the attacks of September 11, 2001 at the World Trade Center , took the lives of 146 workers and spurred the growth of the International Ladies Garment Workers and major improvements in safety standards the factories. [77]

The population of non- white New York was 36,620 people in 1890. [78] In the 1920s , the city was a prime destination for african-Americans during the Great Migration of southern U.S. . In 1916, New York was home to the largest population of urban African diaspora in North America . The renaissance of Harlem flourished during the era of Prohibition , coincident with a larger economic boom that saw the skyline develop with the construction of skyscrapers .

New York became the most populous urbanized area in the world in 1920, overtaking London , and its metropolitan area surpassed the 10 million mark in 1930, becoming the first megacity in human history. [79] The difficult years of the Great Depression saw the election of reformer Fiorello LaGuardia as mayor and the fall of Tammany Hall after 80 years of political dominance. [80]
The United Airlines Flight 175 hits the South Tower of the World Trade Center on the morning of the attacks of September 11, 2001 .

The return of veterans of World War II created a postwar economic boom and the development of new neighborhoods in eastern Queens . New York emerged from the war unscathed as the leading city of the world, with Wall Street headed the place of the United States as the dominant economic power in the world. The headquarters of the United Nations (UN) (completed in 1950) emphasized New York’s political influence and the rise of abstract expressionism in the city precipitated New York displacement as the center of the art world, leaving Paris in the background. [81 ]

In the 1960s, the city began to suffer from economic problems and rates of crime on the rise. Despite the resurgence of the financial industry has greatly improved the city’s economic health in the 1980s, the crime rate in New York continued to rise strongly until the early 1990s. [82] In the 1990s, crime rates started to drop dramatically due to increased police presence and gentrification , and many new waves of immigrants arrived from Asia and Latin America . Important new sectors, such as Silicon Alley , emerged in the city’s economy and population of New York reached its highest number in history in the 2000 census.

The city was one of the places hit Durantes the attacks of September 11, 2001 , when nearly 3,000 people died in the destruction of the World Trade Center . [83] A new One World Trade Center (including the already opened World Trade Center Memorial Museum ) and three new office towers being built at the site and are scheduled to be completed in 2014. The new skyscrapers at the World Trade Center memorial and a new transportation hub that are under construction at the site will bring about a more modern Lower Manhattan and modify the skyline of New York. [84]
Geography
Satellite image of part of the metropolitan area of New York . Over 10 million people live in the area shown in the photograph.

The city of New York is located in the extreme south of the state of New York , in the northeastern United States, approximately halfway between Washington, DC and Boston . [85] Most of New York is located in a cluster of islands the mouth of the Hudson River , occupying the entire island of Manhattan and the west of Long Island . Only the district Bronx is located on the mainland, making land scarce and encouraging a high population density. The Hudson River, which flows in a natural harbor protected and then the Atlantic Ocean , has helped the city grow as an important commercial center.

The Hudson River flows through the Hudson Valley toward New York Bay . Between New York City and Troy , the river is an estuary . [86] The Hudson separates the city from New York to New Jersey . The East River – a narrow tide – flowing from the estuary of Long Island and separates the Bronx and Manhattan from Long Island. The Harlem River , another tidal strait between the East and Hudson Rivers, separates Manhattan from the Bronx. The Bronx River , which flows through the Bronx and Westchester County , is the only river entirely in freshwater in New York City. [87]

The shape of the land was changed several times, and New York since the days when it was Dutch colony, has expanded several times toward the ocean . The same can be said of the conditions of the terrain of the city – previously quite bumpy, Manhattan is currently flat; [88] effects of human intervention in nature . This land reclamation is most prominent in Lower Manhattan , with increments as Battery Park City in the years 1970 and 1980 . [89]

The land area of the city is estimated at 790 km ² [18] [19] and water at 425 km ². Its total area is 1214 km ². The highest point in the city is Todt Hill on Staten Island, which at 124.9 m above sea level is the highest point on the eastern seaboard south of Maine . [90] The peak of the mountain is covered in large part for woods which are part of Staten Island Greenbelt . [91]
Metropolitan Region
Main article: Metropolitan New York

The metropolitan area of New York has about 19.7 million, and includes 26 counties in the states of Connecticut , New York and New Jersey (plus five that make up the city, bringing the total number of counties to 31), covering thus, a large area of the east coast of the United States. [92] The urbanized area of metropolitan New York is the largest land mass in the world, with approximately 8,700 km ² in area, the most populous States States, and the second most populous in the world (surpassed only by that of Tokyo , Japan ). [92]
Climate

New York has a climate temperate humid continental , with four distinct seasons . Located near large bodies of water , the temperature in the city tends to fluctuate less than in localized areas within the continent. However, the weather in New York is unstable and can occur at low temperatures and storms of snow near the end of spring or early in the fall [93] [94] .

The winters are cold city (although hotter than inside, given its location), and eventually snowstorms can completely paralyze the city, with over 30 inches of snow [93] . In winter, the average temperature is 1 ° C [93] . The springs in the city are mild, having maximum ranging from 10 ° C to 15 ° C in March, 20 ° C and 25 ° C in June. The summers of the city are hot and humid, with highs between 32 ° C to 38 ° C, and average temperature of 23 ° C. The highest temperature ever recorded in New York was 42 ° C, in the year 1966 , on July 3 . The rate of precipitation average annual city is 112.4 cm [95] .

Parks

New York has numerous scattered green areas, especially along areas of lower density as Staten Island . A total of 113 km ² area dedicated to over 1700 parks and playgrounds [96] . The most famous park is Central Park (Central Park), located in midtown Manhattan, one of the most popular points of interest in New York [97] . The Central Park is actually made ​​up of over a hundred smaller parks, which in total have four kilometers long and 800 meters wide. The Central Park has numerous fields of sports , gardens , a lake , playgrounds and plenty of green space available, plus a shopping mall , a zoo and a children’s zoo.

Other famous parks are Riverside Park , Battery Park , Prospect Park , Flushing Meadows-Corona Park , and Forest Park [96] .

New York is the most populous city in the United States . In the U.S. Census of 2010 , the city’s population was 8,175,133, an increase of 2.1% from the 8 million counted in 2000. [99] This equates to about 40% of the population of the state of New York and a similar percentage of the population metropolitan regional . In 2006, demographers estimated that New York’s population would reach between 9.2 and 9.5 million inhabitants in 2030. [100] The city’s population in 2010 was comprised of 33% white (non-Hispanic), 23 % of black (non-Hispanic) and 13% of Asians . Hispanics of any race represented 29% of the population, while Asians constituted the fastest growing segment in the city’s population between 2000 and 2010, non-Hispanic white population declined 3 percent, the smallest recorded decline in decades and the first time since the Civil War , the number of blacks fell by more than a decade. [99]

Two demographic points are the city’s density and ethnic diversity. In 2010, the city had a population density of 27,532 persons per square kilometer, making it the most densely populated among all cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants in the United States , however, several small cities in adjacent Hudson County in New Jersey are actually more dense overall, according to the 2000 Census. [101] In contrast, New York County , which corresponds to the area of Manhattan , has a population density of 66,940 persons per square kilometer, [102] which the becomes more densely populated than any county in the United States [103] and that any individual American city.

New York has a high degree of income inequality . In 2005, median family income among the rich was U.S. $ 188,697, while the poorest was U.S. $ 9,320. [104] The disparity is driven by wage growth in high income brackets, while wages have stagnated for middle and low-income brackets. In 2006, the average weekly wage in Manhattan was $ 1,453, growing taller and faster among the largest counties in the United States. [105] The city is also experiencing a baby boom that is unique among American cities. Since 2000, the number of children under age 5 living in Manhattan grew by more than 32%. [106]
Immigrants
See also: Immigration in America
Photochromy of Mulberry Street, in Litte Italy , c. 1900 .
Chinatown in Manhattan.

The population of New York City is exceptionally diverse. [107] Throughout its history, the city has been a major point of entry for immigrants ; over 12 million immigrants Europeans passed through Ellis Island between 1892 and 1924. [108] The term “melting pot” was coined to describe densely populated immigrant neighborhoods on the Lower East Side . In 1900, the Germans were the largest group of immigrants , followed by the Irish , Jews and Italians . [109]

Approximately 36% of the city population is composed of foreigners. [110] Among American cities, this proportion is higher only in Los Angeles and Miami . [111] While the immigrant communities in cities are dominated by a few nationalities , in New York No country or region of origin dominates. The ten largest sources of individuals born in other countries in the metropolitan area are the Dominican Republic , China , Jamaica , Mexico , India , Ecuador , Italy , Haiti , Colombia and Guyana . [112] The New York region continues to be the leading metropolitan the entry of legal immigrants admitted to the United States . [113]

The Greater Metropolitan New York is home to the largest community Jewish outside of Israel . [114] It is also home to nearly a quarter of Americans Indians and 15% of all Americans Koreans , [115] [116] the largest community african american of any city in the country, and 6 chinatowns in the city itself, [117] which included, in 2008, a population of 659,596 Chinese overseas, [118] the largest community outside of Asia . New York City alone, according to the 2010 Census, has now become home to more than one million Asian Americans, greater than the combined total of the cities of San Francisco and Los Angeles , California . [119] New York contains the highest total Asian population than any other city in the United States. [120] . 6.0% of the city population is ethnic Chinese, with about 40% of them living only in the neighborhood of the Queens . Koreans make up 1.2% of the population New Yorker and Japanese 0.3% of the total. The Filipinos are the largest ethnic group in Southeast Asia , with 0.8%, followed by Vietnamese , representing only 0.2% of the population of New York. The Indians are the largest group in South Asia , comprising 2.4% of the city’s population, and Bangladeshis and Pakistanis have 0.7% and 0.5%, respectively. [121]

There are also substantial populations of Puerto Ricans and Dominicans . Another significant ethnic group is that of the Italians , who emigrated to the city in large numbers in the early twentieth century , mainly from Sicily and other parts of southern Italy . The Irish also have a notable presence, one in 50 New Yorkers of European origin carry a distinctive genetic signature on his Y chromosome inherited from the clan of Niall of the nine hostages , an Irish king of the fifth century AD [122] or one of related clans of Uí Briúin Uí and Fiachrach. [123]

The metropolitan area is home to a community of homosexuals and bisexuals estimated 568,903 people, most of the United States . [124] gay marriages were legalized in the state of New York on June 24, 2011 and were authorized to be placed in practice 30 days later. [125]

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