North Korea crisis 2013

The issue addressed in this article, North Korea crisis has lasted since the beginning of 2013 the recent intensification of international conflict on the Korean peninsula. In addition to North and South Korea, mainly allied with South Korea are the United States , allied with North Korea, People’s Republic of China and the United Nations involved.

After the third North Korean nuclear test on 12 February 2013 who responded UNSC with a tightening of sanctions against North Korea. This was followed by repeated provocations by the government of North Korea against South Korea and the United States, the termination of the ceasefire agreement of 1953 , the threat of a “nuclear preemption “, and the closure of the Special Economic Zone Kaesong .

The international community, including the Republic of China , traditionally an ally of North Korea, condemned the renewed threats sharply and urged North Korea to exercise restraint. The United States gradually those threats but mainly as war rhetoric one, but defensive measures taken for the protection of South Korea and its Pacific islands .

History

When Kim Jong-un on 11 April 2012 on the fourth party conference of the Workers’ Party of Korea was the first secretary and thus officially elected party leader, [4] it had not initially seem as if there is a change of course would emerge in the North Korean policy. In particular, the media representation Kim Jong-us similar to its predecessor. However, he said in his New Year speech in early 2013 of an impending “radical” change for the country, as well as of a possible end to the “confrontation” with South Korea as well as from an increase in the living standards of the population, among other things, with an economic boom in agriculture and light industry should be accompanied. In a plenary session of the Central Committee on 31 March 2013 he announced that North Korea will follow “at the same time a new strategy of economic developments such as the establishment of a nuclear force.” Experts considered this statement a contrast to Sŏn’gun doctrine of his father Kim Jong-il , according to the military came first – this will spread the hope that an easing of tensions on the Korean peninsula could move slowly. [ 5] [6]
See also: reign of Kim Jong-us
During the crisis

On 12 December 2012 North Korea carried with Unha-3 , a modified development of the ICBM Taepodong-2, a satellite into orbit, which was considered by experts as a disguised long-range missile test military. [7]

On 22 In January 2013, therefore, the sanctions by the UN Security were tightened against North Korea. [8]

After threats of further nuclear tests of 24 January 2013 was Kim Jong-un, in a special meeting with his top defense officials on 26 January 2013, the instructions for preparation of the third North Korean nuclear tests . [9]
USGS Code image on the measured intensities of the recent nuclear tests

On 12 February 2013 about 12 clock was then numerous stations in the vicinity of the nuclear weapons test site P’unggye-ri measured a magnitude quake of 5.0. Observers consider this as a result of a test of a nuclear weapon which then from KCNA was confirmed. This prompted the UN Security Council unanimously to tighten the sanctions against North Korea further (see: North Korean nuclear test in 2013 ). [10]

Then announced Kim Jong-un, North Korea is located on now with South Korea at war ( de jure state of war has been since the Korean war anyway never canceled) [11] and threatened the United States for the first time with a “nuclear pre-emptive strike “. [12] [13] [14]

The UN Security Council initiated on the same day unanimously to tighten the sanctions on North Korea. [15]

On 8 March 2013 was from North Koreans since 1953 the existing ceasefire with effect from 11th March terminated 2013th [16]

On 12 March 2013 exacerbated the North Korean leader Kim Jong-un’s war rhetoric and during a troop visit the South Korean island named Baengnyeong as the first target of its armed forces in case of war. [17] An immediate threat of war was by independent observers but not seen. [18]

On 14 March 2013 reported the official North Korean news agency KCNA that the Internet in North Korea had broken down as a result of a hostile computer attack [19] and the army had begun a maneuver with combat ammunition near the border. [20] Another target was the island of Yeonpyeong listed (see bombardment of Yeonpyeong , 2010), on which at the same time, South Korean Prime Minister Jung Hong-won was staying. [21] A little later it was announced that the North Korean maneuvers in the vicinity of the South Korean border were held, but north of the Yellow Sea . [22 ]

On 16 March 2013 threatened North Korea for the first time to a nuclear attack with its long-range missile KN-08, available on their performance and commitment so far no hard evidence. [23]

On 18 March 2013 published North Korea a propaganda video, which depicted an attack using nuclear weapons against the United States. [24] Subsequently, the U.S. forces simulated in practice flights with B-52 long-range bombers a nuclear weapon dropped on the Korean peninsula. [25] threatened by this practice flights Kim Jong-un on 21 March 2013 with attacks on U.S. bases in Japan and Guam. [26] 22 On March 2013, the U.S. and South Korea agreed a Joint Deployment Plan, which provides for “immediate and decisive response to any North Korean provocation”. [27] On 26 March 2013 North Korea declared its artillery and missile units were to attack U.S. bases ready for combat. [28]

The armed forces of the United States moved to deter two special nuclear weapon carriers strategic long-range bombers of the type B-2 Spirit to South Korea. These were intended to participate in the annual joint held Key Resolve military exercises. [29]

On 27 March 2013 all telephone connections were severed by North Korea, which makes the communication between the two countries was possible. [30]
Estimated range of North Korean missiles [31]

On 29 March 2013, Kim Jong-un rockets at the U.S. put on standby. Possible targets are the North Korean news agency KCNA, according U.S. military bases on Guam and Hawaii , as well as in South Korea and the continental U.S. . At least the latter are more than 7,500 kilometers away, but outside the known range of North Korean missiles. [31] [32]

On 30 March 2013 called North Korea against South Korea the “state of war” from. [33] The U.S. subsequently gave known to take the threat seriously, referred however to similar declarations of the past and spoke of a pattern of North Korean war rhetoric. [34] The South Korean government had to past, similar as North Korean declarations towards, but also affirmed, “fully repay” any provocation from the neighboring country to want. [35]

On 1 April 2013, the armed forces of the United States beorderten in support of United States Forces Korea (USFK), two air superiority fighter, the type F-22 to South Korea and the destroyer USS McCain and the floating Sea-Based X-band radar station (SBX-1) , with a range of 5000 km, as part of the U.S. missile defense system , the Western Pacific . [36] [37] Moreover, it was up to the 4th April 2013, the 23rd Chemical Battalion with 250 soldiers from the U.S. to South Korea in the room Uijeongbu postponed. [38]

On 2 April 2013 reported North Korean state media, the reactor and the uranium enrichment facility of the Nuclear plant Nyŏngbyŏn would be adjusted and put back into service. [39] According to the calculations of the Institute for Science and International Security North Korea could thus be in a position in 2016 of up to 32 to have nuclear weapons. [40] On the part of the U.S. then moved into a second destroyer, the USS Decatur , in the Western Pacific, the catchment area of the 7th U.S. Fleet , position. [41] Both the USS McCain and the USS Decatur are equipped for defense against missiles and have Tomahawk missiles . [42]

On 3 April 2013 banned North Korea 484 South Koreans to enter the joint Kaesong Industrial Region. [43] The U.S. Department of Defense announced within a few weeks the missile defense system THAAD to Guam to send. The General Staff of the North Korean People’s Army “approved” a nuclear attack on the United States. [44]

On 4 April 2013 it was announced that North Korea had moved a ballistic missile to the east coast of the country. According to the South Korean Ministry of Defense, these were a medium-range missile type BM25 Musudan with a range of up to 3,000 kilometers. [45] The following day, media reported on the deployment of an additional medium-range missile at the North Korean east coast. [46]

On 5 April 2013 recommended that North Korea international diplomats, staff of embassies in the capital, Pyongyang, [47] and the Welthungerhilfe [48] for safety reasons until the 10th to leave April 2013.

First significant criticism from China on North Korea’s action, Chinese President expressed Xi Jinping on 7 April 2013, which warned the neighboring country from further escalation. [49] Previously, North Korea had asked China to withdraw its diplomats, which was interpreted as an affront to the allies. [50]

On 8 April 2013 a South Korean government official told the media of increased activities in the North Korean nuclear weapons test site P’unggye-ri (Punggye Ri). [51] North Korea announced the closure of the jointly managed with South Korea Kaesong Industrial Region. [52]

On 9 April 2013 stationed in Japan in and around Tokyo around at the three sites Ichigaya , Asaka and Narashino Patriot missile defense systems of the type PAC-3. [53] North Korea urges South Korea to initiate evacuation procedures for foreigners. [54]

On 10 April 2013 increased the U.S., South Korea and Japan, the alert status of their forces, after experts had predicted an imminent missile launch in North Korea. [55] was on the same day announced that the most important border crossing between China and North Korea, Dandong , had been closed to tourists. [56]
See also

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