Philadelphia (in English : Philadelphia) is the city most populous of the state American from Pennsylvania . It is the only city in the county namesake of Philadelphia and therefore its headquarters. It is nicknamed Philly and City of Brotherly Love (City of Brotherly Love), due to the etymology of its name: the word “Philadelphia” comes from the Greek Φιλαδέλφεια (pronounced [p ʰ iladelp ʰ and ː a], and in modern Greek, [filaðɛlfia]) literally “brotherly love”: φίλος (philos) meaning “love,” and αδελφός (adelphos) “brother”.

With a population of over 1.5 million inhabitants [1] is the fifth most populous city in the United States , while its metropolitan area has just over 6.3 million inhabitants [2] . Thus, it is the second largest city of the coast Atlantic United States, surpassed only by New York . It is the fourth most densely populated city in Pennsylvania .

One of the oldest American cities, and once the second largest city of the British Empire (being second only to the capital London ), Philadelphia plays major role since the time of the Thirteen Colonies and the early years of American independence. Much of this prominence is due to the action of Benjamin Franklin , city dweller and who left many ideas that germinated, led to the American Revolution and the subsequent independence. As the largest city and geographic and social center of the colonies, the city hosted the First Continental Congress , and, after the Declaration of Independence on July 4, would be the nation’s capital on four other occasions, the last time being between December 6, 1790 and May 14, 1800, when the seat of government was transferred to the newly built city of Washington .

Origin of name

His name means “brotherly love.” Her name was Lydia and received this name because of Attalus II philadephe, the brother of Eumenes II , king of Pergamum , who established one of the seven Christian denominations mentioned in Revelation .
The early Philadelphia

Before the arrival of Europeans , about 20,000 Indians , belonging to the Algonquin Nation lived in the Delaware Valley [3] , and in the village of Shackamaxon.

The exploration of the Delaware Valley began in the early seventeenth century . The first settlers were Swedes , Dutch and British , who in turn settled `the riverbanks. New Sweden , founded in 1638 , was annexed to New Netherland in 1655 . Then, the region fell on the last lap British in 1674 .

In 1681 , King Charles II of England granted a letter to William Penn in exchange for the cancellation of a government debt acquired during the reign of his father. In this work, the colony of Pennsylvania was founded officially [4] . William Penn ( 1644 – 1718 ) was a Quaker English: he belonged to the dissident religious group persecuted in England, who rejected the church hierarchy and advocated equality, tolerance and nonviolence. The Pennsylvania quickly became a haven for all those who were oppressed for their faith. William Penn went to America in 1682 and founded the city of Philadelphia. Although Charles II had given properties, William Penn bought the land from the Indians to establish peaceful relations with them [5] . He reportedly signed a friendship treaty with the Indians in 1682 . [6]

Philadelphia received a development plan colonial, the oldest of the United States , with wide streets and five small parks built immediately [7] But above all, William Penn wanted to make this city more humane. Thinking thus, he was responsible for removing the death penalty in cases of theft in Pennsylvania and guaranteed freedom of religion and worship [8] . The name of the city, the Greek Φιλαδέλφια (“brotherly love”), reflects this ambition. When William Penn returned to England in 1699 after an absence of fifteen years, and the city `back some time later, he found a large city, second only to Boston in population [9] . Many European immigrants, mainly British and Dutch were actually attracted by the prosperity of the city and its religious tolerance. The first group of Germans settled in 1683 in the neighborhood of Germantown current [8] . William Penn gave a letter to the city on October 25 of 1701 [10] , creating their municipal institutions: the mayor and aldermen.

In the second half of the eighteenth century , Philadelphia had become the most populous city of the Thirteen Colonies (45,000 inhabitants in 1780 [8] ), bypassing Boston . It was the second most populous city in the British Empire , sharing the position with Dublin . [8]
An outbreak of lighting

At the end of the eighteenth century , Philadelphia was the “real center of revolutionary Enlightenment” [11] , in particular, under the influence of Benjamin Franklin ( 1706 – 1790 ). This scientist, born in Boston , he moved to Philadelphia in 1723 and was a founder of the Company Library of Philadelphia (Library Company of Philadelphia) in 1731 , University of Pennsylvania ( 1740 ) and the American Philosophical Society ( 1743 ). In 1752 , he invented the lightning rod. In 1728 , John Bartram created a botanical garden, the first of its kind in North America [7] . It is also the eighteenth century that Philadelphia became the main center for the publication of Thirteen Colonies: the first newspaper, The American Weekly Mercury, appeared in 1719 [7] . The Pennsylvania Gazette ( 1723 ) played an important role during the American Revolution . In 1739 was published the first treatise against slavery [7] and became, in Boston, in a reference country against slavery.

Knowledge and culture experienced an important development in the eighteenth century, which made ​​the city is sometimes called the “Athens of America” ​​[12] . In 1760 , the school was founded Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and the following year, a permanent theater [12] . Opened in 1790 , the Faculty of Law, University of Pennsylvania, the oldest law school in the United States. Various artists founded the city in 1794 , the columbianum, who was then the first society for the Promotion of Fine Arts. [7]

Finally, Philadelphia is equipped with facilities, public buildings and urban infrastructure ahead of other American cities and the leadership of Benjamin Franklin [13] : a large hospital and a fire department was founded in 1730 and several banks were founded between 1780 and 1790 [7] . The Pennsylvania State House (now Independence Hall ), home of the colonial assembly, was completed in 1753 . The streets were paved and lit with gas gradually [14] .
The American Revolution
Carpenters Hall hosted the First Continental Congress.

In 1770 , Philadelphia became a major focus of the American Revolution . The Sons of Liberty , an organization of American Patriots were very active in the city: they resisted fiscal measures imposed by the city and urged the colonists to boycott British goods.

Philadelphia was chosen as one of the main focuses of the revolution due to its central position between the Thirteen Colonies, to host the First Continental Congress which took place between September 5 and October 26 of 1774 in Carpenters Hall. The Second Continental Congress was held between 1775 and 1781 , the date of ratification of the Articles of Confederation . During the War of Independence , the Continental Army organized the meeting, set the currency issued and the international relations of the country. The delegates signed the Declaration of Independence on July 4th of 1776 . However, after the American defeat at the Battle of Brandywine in 1777 , Congress had to leave town, along with two thirds of the population [15] . Residents had to hide in the ” Liberty Bell “( Liberty Bell ). [16]

Several misunderstandings happened between the Americans commanded by George Washington to British troops in Pennsylvania . After investing in Philadelphia in September 1777 , the British concentrated 9,000 men in Germantown . Washington failed to surpass himself. In June 1778 , the British abandoned Philadelphia to protect New York , until then exposed to French threat [16] . In July, Congress returned to Philadelphia. Onstituinte The convention met in Philadelphia in 1781 to draft a constitution . This text was signed in Independence Hall in September 1787 . The Continental Congress moved to New York in 1785 , but under pressure from Thomas Jefferson , he again returned to Philadelphia in 1790 [17] , who served for ten years as provisional capital of the United States, while Washington DC was designed [7 ] . Philadelphia also lost its status as a state capital in 1799 .
Industrialization in the nineteenth century
Manufacturer’s plate Baldwin Locomotive Works .

The maritime trade of Philadelphia was interrupted by the Embargo Act of 1807 and the Anglo-American War of 1812 . After that date, the products of Pennsylvania began to be exported through the port of New York. [18]

In the early nineteenth century , Philadelphia experienced significant growth due to its rich agricultural and mining (coal) present in its interior, the construction of roads, canals and railroads allowed the city could maintain its position during the Revolution Industrial . Textiles, clothing, metallurgy, papermaking and railroad equipment, shipbuilding and food processing are the main industries of the nineteenth century. The city was also an important financial center. During the Civil War ( one thousand eight hundred and sixty-one – 1,865th ), the factories of the city provided the Union army military equipment and other resources. The military hospitals have also played an important role in allowing many wounded during the conflict could be seen at their bases.
Riots in Philadelphia ( 1844 ).

Due to the mechanization of agriculture in the southern United States , thousands of African-Americans began to migrate north of Philadelphia and the region became one of the favorite destinations of this influx. As in other American cities, the years preceding the Civil War were marked by violence against immigrants, as anti-Catholic riots between May and June 1844 [19] . With the Consolidation Act of 1854 , the city of Philadelphia annexed several districts, neighborhoods and nearby suburbs. This decision allowed the city limits equate with other municipalities and improve the management of urban problems.
Exhibition of 1876

In 1876 , the exhibition was organized in Philadelphia, the celebration of the Centennial of the Declaration of Independence of the United States . It was held in Fairmount Park, near the Schuylkill River . The exhibition attracted nearly 9,789,392 visitors [19] . Most of the exhibition buildings were sold by the Smithsonian Institution. Among the innovations were shown to the public, the phone (previously created by Alexander Graham Bell ), the typewriter, beer, controller for making bolts, watches and assembly of watches.
Migration in the twentieth century

Thousands of immigrants from South Africa , Germany , Italy , Ireland and Eastern Europe came to work in the industries of the city at the turn of the twentieth century and regrouped in separate locations. During the First World War , the arrival of African Americans fleeing the racial segregation of South Africa has changed the structure of the population. With the development of rail and subway in 1907 , besides the car, the middle class began to leave the city to live in the suburbs. The first skyscraper was designed by Benjamin Franklin Bridge . After the Great Depression , Philadelphia was known for the strength of their unions and their multiple attacks. Unemployment rose sharply and remained at a high level in 1930 , despite the jobs created by the Works Progress Administration. It was not until World War II that the city emerged from the crisis thanks to the arms industry.

In 1950 , the Philadelphia reached its peak population, with just over two million inhabitants. The houses were often inadequate and unhealthy. In 1960 , race riots broke out, and the civil rights movement (Civil Rights Movement). Social problems were compounded with rising unemployment, drugs and gang violence. The middle class white Philadelphia fled to nearby towns, and the city lost more than 13% of its population in the 1970s [20] .

The city government approved the new Charter in 1951 , giving more power to the mayor. The then mayor, Joseph Clark , instituted a policy of urban renewal: better roads and transportation system, habitat restoration, creation of shopping centers and parks. But the city was on the brink of bankruptcy in early 1990 , as well as New York , Boston and other major cities on the east coast, which were hit with a crisis and a situation similar to bankruptcy. Since then, the situation of housing and employment has improved in several areas, but the violence continues at a high level.
Location map of Philadelphia.

Philadelphia is in the northeast of the United States , the region’s industrial Rust Belt , approximately the same latitude as the Balearic Islands , and Naples , in Italy . The city belongs to a continuous urban area, the BosWash , which runs from Boston to Washington DC . The city is located about 160 km from New York . It is situated between the Appalachian Mountains to the north and west and the Atlantic Ocean to the south and east.

The city is located in southeastern Pennsylvania . The suburbs grew, in part, in the east, toward New Jersey , across bridges Benjamin Franklin and Walt Whitman. The center works mainly on the right bank of the Delaware River , which controls the estuary south. The Delaware River has a tributary that runs through Philadelphia, the Schuylkill River , south of the city. There are other smaller rivers across the city: Cobbs Creek, Wissahickon Creek and Creek Pennypacker.

According to the United States Census Bureau , the city has a total area of 369.6 km ², of which 347.3 km ² is covered by land and 22.3 km ² by water , representing 6.03% of the total [1] . The territory of the city is 3.5 times larger than that of Paris . The average altitude is 13 meters above sea level [21] . The Metropolitan Area of Philadelphia occupies the Delaware Valley and has nearly six million inhabitants.

Philadelphia has a temperate climate [22] . Rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year, with eight to eleven days of rain per month and a total of 1068 mm throughout the year. On average, 52 centimeters of snow falls per year [23] .

The summer is generally hot and humid, with July the wettest month of the year. summer rains can overwhelm the Schuylkill River [23] . Temperatures range in July, on average, between 21 ° C and 30 ° C. The highest temperature recorded was 41 ° C on August 7th of 1918 . autumn and spring are relatively mild, but brief. The low average temperatures for the month of January is -4 ° C, the average increase of 4 ° C. The lowest recorded temperature was -24 ° C on 9 February of 1934 .
Population Growth
Census Pop % ±
In 1790 54 391
In 1800 81 009 48.9%
In 1810 111 210 37.3%
In 1820 137 097 23.3%
In 1830 188 797 37.7%
In 1840 258 037 36.7%
In 1850 408 762 58.4%
In 1860 565 529 38.4%
In 1870 674 022 19.2%
In 1880 847 170 25.7%
In 1890 1046964 23.6%
In 1900 1293697 23.6%
In 1910 1549008 19.7%
In 1920 1823779 17.7%
In 1930 1950961 7.0%
In 1940 1931334 -1.0%
In 1950 2071605 7.3%
In 1960 2002512 -3.3%
In 1970 1948609 -2.7%
In 1980 1688609 -13.3%
In 1990 1585577 -6.1%
In 2000 1517550 -4.3%
In 2010 1526006 0.6%
Source: U.S. Census [1] [24] [25]
Evolution and distribution

Sixth largest city in the country [26] , Philadelphia has 1,448,394 inhabitants in the municipality and 5,951,797 inhabitants in its metropolitan area [27] .

In the mid- eighteenth century , Philadelphia was the largest city of the thirteen British colonies. Despite this spectacular growth has declined steadily in the ranking of U.S. cities. Overwhelmed by New York at the end of the eighteenth century , by Chicago in the late 1880 and Los Angeles in the 1950s . The largest increase in the population of Philadelphia, held at the end of the nineteenth century and early twentieth century , the population doubled between 1880 and 1920 , thanks to European immigration. After a population peak in 1950 (two million), the city was evacuated in response to social problems: the white middle class left the city and moved to nearby municipalities. Between 1950 and 2000, Philadelphia lost more than 480 thousand inhabitants. Despite the policy of revitalization and gentrification of neighborhoods ongoing, continuing downward trend (-4.5% between 1990 and 2000 [28] ) still perseveres.

The population density of Philadelphia, comparable to Boston and Chicago , is 4337.3 inhabitants per km ².
Ethnic and social

The distribution ethnic is characterized by the fact that no group is most: the proportion of white is low (45%) in comparison with the national average and tends to decrease. In 2005 , 183,329 people claimed to have ancestors Irish , 121,397 people claimed ancestry have Italian ancestry and 106,339 German [29] . These three communities formed by descendants of immigrants of years the 1,880th – 1,920 , marks the cultural life of Philadelphia.

African-Americans form a large community (43.2% of total) and tend to increase. This group focuses on areas located west and north of the city. The proportion of Hispanics is lower (8.5%) than in the rest of the country, but grows considerably. The community Jamaican is the second largest in the country (97,689 people in 2005 [29] ) are better represented among Hispanics. The Asian population represents 4.5% of the population of Philadelphia: The main thing is the Chinese community, an estimated 20,539 people in 2005 [29] ), the second largest number of East Coast, after New York . Chinatown , a neighborhood typical Chinese , is located in the city center around Race Street, between 8:11 streets.

The rate of people living below the poverty line is 24.5%, twice as high as the state average [30] . It is well above the national average (13.3%). The average annual income per capita is $ 19.140 [31] . Among the major cities of BosWash , Philadelphia is the poorest [32] . The unemployment rate, with 5.7% of the economically active population in 2007 is higher than the national average. [33]

Regarding crime, Philadelphia is the sixth in the ranking of cities with populations greater than 500,000 people, the most dangerous of the United States [34] . In 2004 , 377 homicides were recorded mainly in the ghettos, a rate of 25.6 per 100,000, while the national average is 6.9 and New York is 6.6 [35] . In 2006, the number of homicides totaled 406.

The percentage of licensed is lower than in the rest of Pennsylvania. However, the number of students is large (107,519 in 2005, or 13.5% of total population) due to the presence of many institutions of higher education in the municipality. Utilities, municipal or private to suit most jobs. The sector employs 8% of the workforce, just over 45 000 people in 2005.
Aerial view of the Philadelphia International Airport .

Philadelphia is served by two airports. The Philadelphia International Airport is currently the 9th busiest airport in the United States in terms of aircraft movements (takeoffs and landings) and the 27th busiest airport in the world. There is yet another, the Northeast Philadelphia Airport .
Panorama the business district of Philadelphia.

Philadelphia Museum of Art (Philadelphia Museum of Art)
Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania
Rodin Museum (the largest collection of works by Auguste Rodin outside of France )
Barnes Foundation (Barnes Foundation)
Atwater-Kent Municipal Museum
The home of Edgar Allan Poe
National Constitution Center
Independence Hall
Fairmount Park
Eastern State Penitentiary
Philadelphia Zoo (Philadelphia Zoo)
National Constitution Center
Concert hall of the Philadelphia Orchestra
Christian Church (organized in 1695 – built in 1727)
Lincoln Financial Field
Wells Fargo Center
Citizens Bank Park


Philadelphia has ten sister cities, as designated by the International Visitors Council of Philadelphia [36] :

Cameroon Douala , Cameroon
Italy Florence , Italy
South Korea Incheon , South Korea
Russia Nizhny Novgorod , Russia
Israel Tel Aviv , Israel
People’s Republic of China Tianjin , People’s Republic of China
Poland Toruń , Poland
Italy Abruzzo , Italy
France Aix-en-Provence , France
Japan Kobe , Japan

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