Pope Name

The pope name of a newly elected pope accepted instead of his baptismal name, and he remains, as in the case of Pope Benedict XVI. , even after a resignation . His feast commits the Pope, however, still according to his baptismal name. The name of the Pope in Rome gathered crowd at the end of a conclave of cardinal deacon on Latin proclaims:

“Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum: Habemus Papam! Eminentissimum ac Reverendissimum Dominum, Dominum XXX, XXX Cardinalem Ecclesiae Sanctae Romanae, qui sibi nomen imposuit XXX. ”

“I bring you good tidings of great joy: We have a Pope! His Eminence the Most Reverend Lord, Lord [baptismal name of the elected], Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church, [name of the person chosen], who has given himself the name [name of Pope] “. [1]

If a member of one of the Uniate Churches have been elected Pope, the word “Romanae” not applicable. Is not selected in the Cardinal rank, the corresponding passage omitted.

The tradition to adopt a new name for the election to the papacy, not goes back to the origins of the papacy, but by matching the name of the modern popes with that of the ancients and by a uniform nomenclature from the beginning to now he carries on his Type the continued existence of this institution at.

forms and variants of Pope names

Like other nicknames also differ Pope names in different languages. Usually the names are “translated” into the respective native language, if there is an equivalent for them in it. Therefore, a Pope, in Latin Ioannes and Greek words Ιωάννης (Ioannis), in French Jean, in English John, on Italian Giovanni, on Spanish Juan, on Hungarian János and German called John. Unless specifically noted, the Pope names used in this article are the German. For the 2013 elected Pope sat down in the German immediately Francis through, probably because that the reference to St. Francis of Assisi is most clearly “translated”; “Franz” looks like “John” in German too common, although Franz same time as princes and imperial name occurs entirely in German. Popes named John were also never called in German only “John”, while “Paul” as a translation for Latin Paulus (actually, “the little one”) was also common for the Pope’s name.
Languages ​​and names

Not every “translation” – usually a place in the course of centuries or forming phonetic and grammatical adaptation – is possible or necessary. Some rare names retain their Latin or Greek form, because there is no German equivalent ( Hormisdas , Sisinnius ), other Latin names are unchanged in German-handed ( Pius , Leo ).

In non- Catholic countries and cultures Pope names often borrowed from other languages. In Turkish , it is common to refer to popes with their French names preceded by a number. Pope John Paul II and Benedict XVI. therefore generally hot and onaltıncı ikinci Jean Paul Benoit. With the increasing spread of English but more often one finds the forms ikinci onaltıncı John Paul and Benedict. One can find even the Latin or Italian name. Moreover, in these forms, sometimes the spelling retained the original language, sometimes the name written phonetically (Jan pole).

The cultural and linguistic dominance of one state over another has a strong influence on the naming of the dominated country, even with regard to Pope names. In Azeri , a very near the Turkish language, one uses the Russian Pope names, which is why John Paul II ikinci Ioann Pavel – in Russian Иоанн Павел второй (Ioann Pavel wtoroj) – was called. In Tagalog , the official language of the Philippines , which are Spanish Pope names. Add to Protestant dominated countries in Northern Europe , the Latin Pope names are used, although in each language there is an equivalent of the most common. Exceptions are made ​​but for the most common first name (Paul Alexander), and in others the orthography of the language can be changed (for example, by replacing c by k). In contrast, languages ​​have in Orthodox countries equivalents for the Holy Name of the early Christian church and can therefore translate the majority of Pope names.

Moreover, Christianity is in some Arab countries have long been established, so it is Catholic saints and popes name on it for Arabic are. These names differ to some of their strict equivalent in the Muslim tradition from: John is represented as يوحنا (Yuhanna) when a Catholic pope is meant, but when يحيی (Yahya), when Muslims the Prophet John the Baptist mean.
Ambiguity of certain names

Even in the “official” Latin Popes lists, it is possible that several names that sound similar but have a similar meaning or were confused afterwards. For example, probably wore the first three popes of antiquity called Sixtus the Greek name Xystos (the Smoothed) or the Roman name Sextus (the Sixth). The two names were added to a single name Sixtus (Latinized Greek-sometimes Xystus) mixed, which then in the Renaissance was picked up by two other popes.

The same mixture is from phonetic reasons befall Marinus or Martin ( see below ). This confusion, however, today recognized as an error, and the two names are considered to be different.

Between 615 and 618 ruled a pope with the Latin name Deusdedit , literally “God gave”. Reigned from 672-676, another pope, whose Latin name Adeodatus (“given by God”) has practically the same meaning. It has become customary to regard the two names as variants of one and the same, and to lead the two popes in lists in Latin as Adeodatus Adeodatus primus and secundus.

In the case of the third pope, according to sources Kletus or Anacletus, in the article Anaclete received.
History
name of the first Popes
Simon bar Jonah, as Peter to church tradition, the first pope paintings by Rubens

The known data of the earliest bishops of Rome are often limited in their name.

It is generally believed that the first popes we have survived with their proper names. Given the scarcity of source material ever, do not clarify with certainty. According to the Gospel of Matthew was the Apostle Peter Simon before him Christ by saying that the papacy altogether justified by the Catholic understanding with Simon as the first owner, called Peter gave:

“Tu es Petrus, et super hanc Ecclesiam meam petram aedificabo”

“You are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church”

– ( Mt 16,18 EU )

From Peter’s immediate successors little is known. There are some ambiguities in the list of the first popes, especially when their reigns and the names and the temporal classification Pope Anacletus , which is according to some sources also called Kletus.

The first Pope to Jewish , Roman or Greek origin have been, or have originated from other parts of the Roman Empire. Their traditional names, however, are almost always in Latin or Greek. It is unknown whether it is translations of their original name in one of the two official languages ​​of the empire, or whether as a Roman citizen – but not necessarily as an ethnic Latins an official Greek or Latin had in addition to their native name -. It is possible that some of them had already given upon entering the new religion of their choice, and before a new name to the Pope. The traditional Latin names we can praenomina, nominal or cognomina , so his first name, family name or surname.

Only two Pope names are of Hebrew origin. They come directly from the New Testament and dive right up late, at a time when Christianity had been completely separated from Judaism. These names are John (the year 523, according to John the Baptist ) and Zacharias (the year 741, according to Zechariah , John’s father). Finally a Pope seems a Germanic names to have worn, that Lando . He was (before John Paul I in 1978 and Francis 2013), the last pope, who wore a new name. According to him, all newly elected popes took names that had already taken at least one predecessor, and soon the habit of systematic change of name made out.

The first popes to the 6th Century are almost universally as a saint venerated. Hence the name, which they wore, used for generations to come baptismal name, and in part to today, for example, were Eugene , Julius , Pascal , Urban , New Year , Felix and possibly Kai .
Origin of the name change of the Popes

The first recorded case of a change of name of a man who was elected Pope, who is in a Mercury 533 Since he was not the name of a pagan deity wanted to wear, he called himself John II This was repeated when a man was elected with the name of a pagan god or emperor; boarded a 955 Octavian therefore the papal throne as John XII.

In the year 983 was Peter Canepanova as John XIV Pope. He wanted a second “Pope Peter” after the first Pope and Apostle Peter avoided. The other bearer of the name Peter, or a variant, which were Pope, changed their name for the same reason.

Shortly afterwards, in 996, the first German, was Bruno of Carinthia , was elected pope. He was followed by 999 the first French Pope, Gerbert of Aurillac. Both wore Germanic first names were foreign to the papal tradition (although a predecessor, Lando , had worn a Germanic or name Lombard pope despite his Italian origin). They changed their name to it and were Gregory V or Sylvester II this time Germanic first names were already widely used not only in Germanic countries. From now on, all carriers of a Germanic name changed this when they were pope. The only exceptions made ​​two anti-popes of the 11th Century, who maintained their Germanic name: Theodoric and Albert . (Only at antipope Gregory VI. ‘s real name is unclear, possibly even he has not changed his name.)

For all these reasons, the need for a name change, the majority of the popes already employed at the end of the 10th Century, but the custom became established independently of their given names for almost all the popes. He received a symbolic meaning: The new Pope was no longer the same man as before his election, and therefore his name should no longer be the same. This gave the election to the papacy a special importance, although they never as a sacrament as the priestly or episcopal ordination was recognized.
Enthronement of Benedict XIII. , anti-pope in Avignon , in September 1394

Until about the end of the 12th Century, it was not like today, clearly at the moment of adoption of the election to the papacy, but at least formally only by the enthronement of a bishop and necessary. This was necessary for several reasons. Particular often had the consent of the emperor opportune seen (though not necessarily). Many Elected were also no bishops , some not even priests , and therefore had to be consecrated until before they could act in the office fully effective. (This also writes the church right now.) Gregory VII , elected 1073, there was still that only the enthronement of a man in full force to make Pope, accepting the choice justified to speak only the claim to the office. Due to the often chaotic political situation was in many popes a longer period of time, up to more than a year, between the election and enthronement. Bishop Guibert of Ravenna, appointed by the Emperor to the Pope in 1080 (and now seen as anti-pope) could be enthroned until 1084 in Rome. In the intervening four years, he considered himself only as “elected Pope” rather than acting. He went out of his name Pope Clement III. before at his inauguration. One can speculate, therefore, that his immediate successor, Theodoric and Albert therefore did not change their names because they were not enthroned, or that their possible secret Enthronement no traces of history has left at least one pope name.

996 Since only two popes kept their baptismal names at: Adriaan Florisz Boeyens was in 1522 Adrian VI. , and Marcello Cervini ascended the papal throne in 1555 as Marcellus II Giuliano della Rovere in 1503 probably wanted to keep his name, but there was no predecessor called Julian, so he, as it were content with the name Julius, who had already been worn once and Julius II was. In fact, since elected Lando only 913 Francis back in 2013 an entirely new Pope names. Lando to time the papacy was of some Roman families, including the Tuskulanern taken in fitting, and the names that came up here, showed little change. As soon after the name change was customary, all the popes stayed (apart from John Paul I in 1978, combined the two previous names, see below) to the principle to select only previously carried names.
Meaning of the name Pope

The name itself is a new pope, can have many meanings, and with a number of the reason for their choice is unknown. “Programmatic” sounding Latin names Innocent (Innocentia = innocence) and Clemens (clementia = Mild), but where there are also early Roman predecessors, similar to Pius (= the pious). Benedictus is Latin for “the blessed,” Boniface for “benefactor”. The new pope can take his name in honor of a particular saint. The “senior” occurring holy names as Pope names are John the Baptist (about 23 times) and Paul (played 6 times), another “great” Saints are as Stephen , Nicholas and Martin . A choice can be made in honor of a relative, or reminiscent of a church in which the new pope has prevailed, or to several other people with the same name. As Gerbert became pope in 1000, he chose the name Sylvester II in memory of Sylvester I , Pope of Constantine the Great, was when Roman Christianity became the state religion.
Gregory the Great, in a representation Francisco de Zurbarán

Numerous popes chose their name as a tribute to a distant past and glorious place on a closer predecessor – especially frequently are here Gregory the Great (16 times) or Leo the Great (13 times). This happened sometimes, to give the papacy after the failures of the recent past, new shine. In particular, followed the period of great decadence of the Papacy of 10 Century to the first half of the 11th Century, in the most common names John, Benedict, Leo and Stephen had been the period of the so-called Gregorian reforms , named after Gregory VII , although they partially began even before his reign. In response to the Popes in the recent past many very old Pope names were revived. The list of popes from 1046 to 1145 shows a large number of names ordinal II (14 of 18 popes). This name (and Gregor ) were then re-used again, of how a new series with an atomic number of stems III (1145 to 1227 with 8 of 11 popes). Similarly, there are a number of IV (1241-1292 with 8 of 13 popes before the system is in the Fifth Generation (breaks down to about 1455)., The shame of theophylaktischen epoch was forgotten, and the “tainted” names John and Benedict came back into fashion The name “Leo”, however, still had several centuries until its revival wait (cf. St. Leo IX. , Leo X , Leo XII. ; knüpften probably all of Leo I the Great on. ). “Stephen” was, not reused since IX. (X) 1058, the German was possibly due to the numbering difficulties that would be associated with that name.

During the Great Schism of the Popes took Rome , Avignon and Pisa significantly different from each other names. After the restoration of the papacy, the Pope concluded, first single from the names of three old allegiances and were instead revive Come names out of use again. The first of them was called after St. Martin of Tours , on the day of his election as the feast of Saint Martin was (is celebrated November 11th), so Pope Martin V , regardless of the counting error at this name. In the epoch of humanism and the early Renaissance is striking that personal motives occur when choosing a name. When the Spaniards Calixtus III. , the “objective” meaning particularly unclear whether he so at first predecessors Callistus received or the Greek word meaning (“the most beautiful”) or as “onomatopoeia” on the Santo Cáliz of Valencia, in his home as a Holy Grail is venerated. Pope Nicholas V chose his name in grateful remembrance of his former master and benefactor, the Sel. Carthusians and Cardinal Niccolò Albergati ; Sixtus IV , because the beginning of the conclave in which he was elected, at that time the Feast of Pope St. Sixtus II coincided (6 August), Pius IV probably because he wanted to be what the name implies; Sixtus V , to renew the memory of Sixtus IV, who he had been a member of the Franciscan Order. Pius IX . was called by Pope Pius VIII , because of this, as he had been at that time Bishop of Imola. Collected in 1590, however, the Cardinal Castagna said he would wear an old Pope names, and called himself Urban VII (already I. Urban was born in Romans as he), a name that had not happened for over 200 years, but then until today the last time, by Urban VIII was picked up. [2]

At the time of the Renaissance many different names were in use, some time consistently, others old and otherwise no longer in use, with the only restriction that the name had been used at least once before. Apart from maintaining the baptismal name ( Adrian VI. , Marcellus II , and with a small change of Julius II ) was also an esteemed name in the family to Pope names Cardinal Enea Silvio Piccolomini was Pope Pius II in reference to the “pious Aeneas” by Virgil. Rodrigo Borgia was called Alexander VI. declared in worship of Alexander the Great . The Renaissance thus allowing references to ancient pagans. Alexander VII , however, referring to Alexander III. , also born in Siena; like . Benedict XV to Benedict XIV . remembered who was also Archbishop of Bologna Innocent VIII recalled Innocent IV , who was also from Genoa. . Several popes took the name of a predecessor from her family . Pius III was the nephew of Pius II , Honorius IV , a great-nephew of Honorius III. , and Leo XI. too great nephew of Leo X , . Innocent XIII came from the ancient noble family, who has among others . Innocent III arose. Julius III. Julius II honored as a patron of his family, including Paul V the previous sponsor of the Borghese , Paul III.

Generally uncommon there, the name is one of the twelve apostles to choose as Pope Name, especially not Peter, or an evangelist. (An exception was only the short-reigning Pope Marcus , who previously had this name.) Unusually is also the name of St. Joseph, the patron Nährvaters Jesus and the Church.
The Pietas

However, the most frequent patron of Pope name is a precursor in the recent past, the newly elected Pope wishes to show gratitude for personal reasons. This custom is called Pietas after the Latin word for “piety”.
Clement XI. , founder of a “dynasty” of four cardinals and popes of this name later

The newly elected popes elected in the early modern period, increasingly the name of that which they had named a cardinal, or thanks to which they in the hierarchy had risen. Thus, refers Paul IV to Paul III. , as was Clement XIV Ganganelli of Clement XIII. been appointed as Cardinal Rezzonico, this turn of Clement XII. Corsini, and that of Clement XI. Albani. The Roman Clement X Altieri was also by his predecessor Clement IX. Rospigliosi been raised in the Cardinal stand, as well as Benedict XIV of Benedict XIII. , and Innocent XII. of Innocent XI. , and that of Innocent X was elevated to cardinal. At the Clemens-popes but also four times a program of clemency (= clementia) was demonstrably linked to the choice of name, as in Clement VII de ‘Medici, Clement VIII Aldobrandini, Clement IX. and Clement XI. (For the latter and the Holy Days, as well as with Martin V and Sixtus IV ).

Gregory XVI. Capellari refers to Gregory XV. Ludovisi, the founder of Propaganda Fide , Cardinal Capellari board before his election as pope. Gregory XV. again reminded of Gregory XIII. Buoncompagni, his compatriot and early promoter. Gregory XIII. but made ​​reference to the St. Gregory I , on whose feast day he was elevated to cardinal. The Dominicans Benedict XIII. referring to the Dominican Pope Benedict XI.

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