Portuguese

The Portuguese, also called Portuguese is a Romance language inflectional originated in Galician-Portuguese spoken in the Kingdom of Galicia and northern Portugal . The southern part of the Kingdom of Galicia became independent, changing its name Portucalense in 1095 (a kingdom from 1139). While Galicia declined, Portugal expanded independent south ( Conquest of Lisbon , 1147) and spread the language, with the Reconquista , to Southern Portugal and later, with the Portuguese discoveries , to Brazil , Africa and other parts the world. [3] The Portuguese was used at that time, not only in the cities conquered by the Portuguese, but also by many local rulers in their contacts with other powerful foreign. Especially this time the Portuguese language also influenced several languages ​​[4] .

It is an official language of the European Union , the Mercosur , the Union of South American Nations , the Organization of American States , the African Union and the Portuguese Speaking Countries . With approximately 280 million speakers, Portuguese is the 5th most spoken language in the world, the 3rd most spoken language in the Western Hemisphere and the most spoken in the southern hemisphere of the Earth .

During the Age of Exploration , Portuguese sailors brought their language to distant places. The operation was followed by attempts to colonize new lands to the Portuguese Empire and as a result, the Portuguese dispersed around the world. Brazil and Portugal are the only two countries whose primary language is Portuguese. However, the language is also widely used as a lingua franca in former Portuguese colonies of Mozambique , Angola , Cape Verde , Equatorial Guinea , [5] [6] [7] Guinea Bissau and Sao Tome and Principe , all in Africa . [8] Also, for historical reasons, Portuguese speakers are also found in Macau , in East Timor and Goa . [9]

Portuguese is known as “the language of Camões” (named after one of the best known literary figures of Portugal, Luís Vaz de Camões , author of The Lusiads ) and “the last flower of Latium “(term used in sonnet Portuguese Language the writer Brazilian Olavo Bilac [10] ). Miguel de Cervantes , author of the celebrated Spanish , the language considered “sweet and nice”. [11] In March 2006, the Museum of the Portuguese Language , an interactive museum about the language, was founded in São Paulo , Brazil , the city with the greatest number of Portuguese speakers around the world.

The Portuguese originated in what is now Galicia and northern Portugal , derived from Vulgar Latin which was introduced in the west of the Iberian Peninsula for nearly two thousand years. It has a substrate Celtic – Lusitanian , [13] resulting from the native language of the pre-Roman Iberian peoples who inhabited the western part of the peninsula ( Galician , Lusitano , Celtic and Cónios ). Arose in northwestern Iberian peninsula and developed in its western range, including part of the ancient Lusitania and Bética Roman. The novel Galician-Portuguese born of Latin spoken, brought by Roman soldiers, settlers and magistrates. The contact with the Vulgar Latin made ​​after a period of bilingualism, local languages ​​disappear, leading to the emergence of new dialects. It is assumed that the language began its process of differentiation from other Iberian languages ​​by contacting the different native languages ​​with local Vulgar Latin , which led to the possible development of various individual traits even in the Roman period. [14] [15] [16] The language began the second phase of the process of differentiation from other Romance languages ​​after the fall of the Roman Empire during the time of the barbarian invasions in the fifth century when the first documented phonetic changes which are reflected in the lexicon. It began to be used in written documents by the ninth century, and in the fifteenth century had become a mature language with a very rich literature.

Coming to the Iberian Peninsula in 218 BC, the Romans brought with them Vulgar Latin , that all Romance languages ​​(also known as “novilatinas languages” or “neo-Latin”) descended. Only at the end of the first century BC the people living south of the pre-Roman Lusitania, the cónios and Celtic begin the process of Romanization . The paleo-Iberian languages ​​, as the Lusitanian language or South Lusitanian are replaced by Latin. [17] The language spread with the arrival of the soldiers, settlers and merchants, coming from various provinces and Roman colonies, who built Roman cities usually near native cities.

From 409 AD, [18] while the Roman Empire was collapsing, the Iberian Peninsula was invaded by people of Germanic and Iranian or Slavic [19] ( Suevi , Vandals , búrios , Alans , the Visigoths ), known by the Romans as barbarians who received land as foederati . The Barbarians (mainly the Suevi and the Visigoths) absorbed large scale culture and language of the peninsula, however, since the schools closed and the Roman administration, Europe entered the Middle Ages and communities became isolated, the popular Latin continued to evolve differently leading to the formation of a proto-Latin romance “Lusitanian” (or proto-Galician-Portuguese ). Since 711 , with the Islamic invasion of the peninsula, which also introduced a small contingent of Saqaliba , the Arabic became the language of administration of the conquered areas. However, the population continued to use his lines Romance, the Mozarabic areas under the Moors, so that when the Moors were expelled, the influence exerted on the tongue was relatively small. Its main effect was in the lexicon , with the introduction of about a thousand words by Mozarabic -Lusitanian.
Inside the Museum of the Portuguese Language in Sao Paulo , Brazil .

In 1297, with the completion of the reconquest, King Dinis I pursues policies on legislation and centralization of power, adopting Portuguese as the official language in Portugal. The language has spread around the world in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries when Portugal established a colonial and commercial empire ( 1 415 – 1,999 ) that stretched from Brazil , in America , in Goa , in Asia ( India , Macau in China and Timor-Leste ). It was used as a lingua franca in the exclusive island of Sri Lanka for almost 350 years. During this time, many creole languages ​​based on Portuguese also appeared around the world, especially in Africa , in Asia and in the Caribbean .

In March 1994 was founded the Bosque de Portugal , in the town south-Brazilian from Curitiba , the park houses the Portuguese Language Memorial , which honors the Portuguese immigrants and the countries that adopt the Portuguese; originally were seven nations that were represented pillars, but with the independence of East Timor , this was also honored with a pillar built in 2007 . [20] In March 2006 , was founded in São Paulo the Museum of the Portuguese Language .

The Day of Portuguese Language and Culture is celebrated on May 5 , being promoted by CPLP and celebrated throughout the Portuguese-speaking world. [21]
Geographical Distribution
Main article: Geography of Portuguese and Lusophone
See attached page: List of international organizations which have Portuguese as an official language
The Portuguese language in the world.

Portuguese is the language of the majority of the population of Portugal , [22] Brazil , [23] Sao Tome and Principe (95%) [24] and Angola . [25] Although only 6.5% of the population of Mozambique to be native speakers of Portuguese, the language is spoken by about 39.6% of Mozambicans, according to the census of 1997. [26] The language is also spoken by 11.5% of the population of Guinea-Bissau . [27] There are no data available for Cape Verde , but almost all the population is bilingual, and Cape Verdeans monolingual speakers of Cape Verdean Creole .

There are also significant communities of immigrant Portuguese speakers in many countries including Andorra (15.4%), [28] Australia , [29] Bermuda , [30] Canada (0.72% or 219,275 people according to the 2006 census, [ 31] but between 400,000 and 500,000 according to Nancy or 636,000 people), [38] South Africa , [39] Switzerland (196,000 nationals in 2008), [40] Venezuela (1 to 2% or 254,000 to 480,000 people) [41] and the United States (0.24 % of the population or 687,126 speakers according to the American Community Survey , 2007), [42] especially in New Jersey , [43] New York [44] and Rhode Island . [45]

In some parts of what was Portuguese India , such as Goa [46] and Daman and Diu , [47] the Portuguese is still spoken, although it is disappearing.
Official Language
See attached page: List of countries where Portuguese is an official language
Member countries of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries
Countries observers or associates

The Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP acronym) consists of nine countries that have independent Portuguese as an official language : Angola , Brazil , Cape Verde , East Timor , Guinea-Bissau , Equatorial Guinea , Mozambique , Portugal and Sao Tome and Principe . [8]

The Equatorial Guinea made ​​a formal application for full membership to the CPLP in June 2010 and should add Portuguese as the third official language (alongside Spanish and French ) since this is one of the conditions for joining the group. The President of the Republic of Equatorial Guinea, Obiang Nguema Mbasog, Prime Minister and Head of State, Ignacio Milam Tang, approved and presented on July 20, 2011 the new Constitutional Law Project you want to add Portuguese as the official language. The decree awaits ratification by the House of People’s Representatives and will enter into force 20 days after its publication in the Official Gazette of the state (equivalent to the Portuguese Official Gazette) [48] [49] [50] .

Portuguese is also one of the official languages ​​of the special administrative region of China from Macau (alongside Chinese ) and of several international organizations , such as Mercosur , [51] Organization of Ibero-American States , [52] the Union of South American Nations U.S. , [53] the Organization of American States , [54] the African Union [55] and the European Union . [56]
Population of countries and jurisdictions speaking Portuguese or cooficial
Pie chart showing the percentage of Portuguese speaking country.

According to reliable official statistics and the respective governments and their national statistical institutes, the population of each of the nine jurisdictions is as follows (in descending order):

Brazil : 193 946 886 (Census 2011) [57] ;
Mozambique : 20,069,738 (final results of Census 2007) [58] [59] ;
Angola : 20,900,000 (government estimate in 2012, Angola has not held a census for decades, with the next scheduled for 2013) [60] ;
Portugal : 10,561,614 (preliminary results of the Census, 2011) [61] [62] ;
Guinea-Bissau : 1520830 (final result of the Census, 2009) [63] ;
Timor-Leste : 1,066,582 (preliminary results of the 2010 Census) [64] ;
Equatorial Guinea : 616,459 (Census 2008) [65]
Macau : 558,100 (estimate 2. DSEC quarter of the Macao SAR Government. Census The result of 2011 is still being tabulated) [66] [67] [68] ;
Cape Verde : 499 796 (preliminary results of the 2010 Census) [69] ;
Sao Tome and Principe : 187,356 (Census results in 2012) [70]

Map of African Countries of Portuguese Official Language (PALOP)

With these data presented above reveals that the number of speakers of Portuguese-speaking world is approximately 241 million people. [ citation needed

You can add up to that number the vast diaspora of citizens of Lusophone nations throughout the world, estimating that amounts to 10 million (4.5 million Portuguese , 3 million Brazilians , half a million Cape Verdeans , etc.). but on which it is difficult to get real numbers officers, including up this percentage to obtain data that diaspora who speaks the language effectively Camões , since a significant portion of citizens will be speaking countries born out of the territory of Portuguese speaking descendants immigrants, who do not necessarily speak Portuguese. It is also necessary to take into account that much of the national diasporas is already counted in the populations of Portuguese speaking countries, such as the large number of emigrant citizens of African Countries of Portuguese Official Language (PALOP) and Brazilians in Portugal, or large number of citizens Portuguese emigrants in Brazil and the PALOPs. [71]

The Portuguese language is the daily life of 241 million people, who have direct or indirect contact legal, legal and socially with the Portuguese language, such contact may consist of language in day-to-day, through education, through contact with administration Local or international, trade and / or services, or even consist of simple glimpse of signage , local information and advertising in Portuguese. [ citation needed

It is important to note also the increase of population and the consolidation of the various jurisdictions to round numbers easily identifiable: Continental Portugal with 10 million and the Azores and Madeira together accounting for already half a million, and Brazil passes the 190 million, 20 million of Mozambique, Angola from 15 million , Guinea-Bissau 1.5 million, the group African island Cape Verde and Sao Tome and Principe, which has 1 million, Timor-Leste, which also has roughly the same population, and Macau with 500 thousand. Recent figures real and which individually and jointly strengthen their nations, identities and Lusophone Portuguese language in the international arena. [ citation needed
Portuguese as a foreign language

The compulsory teaching of Portuguese in school curricula is observed in Uruguay [72] and in Argentina . [73] Other countries where Portuguese is taught in schools, or where your education is being introduced now include Venezuela , [74] Zambia , [ 75] Congo , [76] Senegal , [76] Namibia , [76] Swaziland , [76] Côte d’Ivoire [76] and South Africa . [76]

In the state of Goa in India , currently the Portuguese is taught in state and private education. The Goa University has an MA in Portuguese Studies since 1988.
Future

According to estimates by UNESCO , Portuguese is one of the fastest growing languages ​​among European languages ​​after English and Spanish . Portuguese is the language that has the greatest potential for growth as an international language in southern Africa and South America . [77] It is hoped that the African Portuguese speakers have a combined population of 83 million people by 2050. In total, the Portuguese-speaking countries will have around 400 million people in the same year. [77]

Since 1991, when Brazil signed the economic market of Mercosul with other South American countries such as Argentina , Uruguay and Paraguay , there has been an increased interest in the study of Portuguese in the nations of South America . demographic weight of Brazil in the continent continue to strengthen the presence of the language in the region. [78] [79]

Although at the beginning of the century, after Macau was ceded to China , the use of Portuguese was in decline in Asia , is again becoming a language relatively popular there, mostly because of increased Chinese diplomatic and financial ties with the Portuguese-speaking countries. [80]
Visibility policy
Fourth Conference of Heads of State and Government of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries in Brasilia .

An increasing number of people who speak Portuguese, in the media and on the Internet, they are presenting the situation to the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP) and other organizations to conduct a debate on the Portuguese-speaking community, with the goal of presenting a petition to make Portuguese an official language of the United Nations (UN).

In October 2005, during the international convention of the International Community Links Club Lusíada held in Tavira (Portugal), the text of which a petition can be found on the internet titled “Petition to make the Portuguese language in official UN” was drafted and unanimously approved. [81] Romulo Alexandre Soares, president of the Brazil – Portugal, which highlights the position of Brazil in the international arena as one of the emerging powers of the twenty-first century, the size of its population, and the presence of the Portuguese in its variant worldwide, provides a legitimate justification for the petition sent to the UN, and thus make Portuguese an official language of the organization. [82] This is currently one of the causes of the International Lusophone. [83]
Headquarters of the International Portuguese Language Institute in Praia , Cape Verde .

In Africa , Portuguese is the official language in Cape Verde, Sao Tome and Principe, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique and Angola. [84] Finally, in Asia, is East Timor Lusophone a nation. [8]
Dialects
Main article: Dialects of English
See also: European Portuguese , Brazilian Portuguese , Portuguese Angolan , Portuguese Cape Verde , Sao Tome Portuguese , Portuguese in Guinea-Bissau , Portuguese Macao , Portuguese in Mozambique , Portuguese East Timor , speaks of Extremadura and Portuguese oliventino
Library in the Baroque style of the University of Coimbra .

Like other languages, Portuguese suffered a historical evolution, being influenced by many languages ​​and dialects , until you reach the stage known today. One must consider, however, that the Portuguese today comprises several dialects and subdialects, subfalares and talk, often quite distinct, and two internationally recognized standards (the Brazilian Portuguese and European Portuguese ). At present, the Portuguese is the only language in the Western world spoken by more than a hundred million people with two spellings official (it is noted that the English spelling differences are punctual but not official divergent spellings). This situation must be resolved by the Orthographic Agreement of 1990 . [85]

The Portuguese language has a great variety of dialects , many with a marked difference in lexical relation to standard Portuguese in Brazil or Portugal. [86] [87] [88] Such differences, however, not much harm intelligibility between speakers of different dialects. [89]

The first studies on the dialects of European Portuguese began to be recorded by Leite de Vasconcelos in the early twentieth century. [90] [91] Even so, all aspects and sounds of all the dialects of Portugal can be found in some dialect in Brazil . The Portuguese Africa, particularly the Portuguese Sao Tome, has many similarities with the Portuguese of Brazil. At the same time, the dialects of southern Portugal (called “Southern”) have many similarities with the Brazilian speech, especially, the extensive use of gerund (eg speaking, writing, etc.).. In Europe, the dialects transmontano and high-minhoto exhibit many similarities to the Galician. [92] A dialect is almost gone oliventino Portuguese or Portuguese Alentejo oliventino , spoken in Olivenza and Táliga . [93]

After the independence of the former African colonies, the Portuguese standard of Portugal has been chosen by the Portuguese-speaking African countries. Soon, the Portuguese has only two dialects Learning, European and Brazilian. Note that in European Portuguese language there is a variety that originated the prestigious norm-standard: a variety of Lisbon . [94] In Brazil, the largest number of speakers lies in the southeast of the country, this region has been the subject of intense internal migration, thanks to its economic power. The Federal District . presents a highlight due to its own dialect, the various hordes of internal migration. The dialects of Portuguese Americans and Europeans have problems of mutual intelligibility (in both countries), largely due to cultural differences, phonetic, lexical. Neither can, however, be considered as intrinsically better or perfect. [95]

Some Christian communities of Portuguese speakers in India , Sri Lanka , Malaysia and Indonesia preserved their language even after they have been isolated from Portugal. The language was greatly altered in these communities, and many were born Portuguese-based creoles , some of which persist after centuries of isolation. [96] It is also noticeable a variety of words derived from Portuguese in Tetum . Words of Portuguese origin entered the lexicon of many other languages, such as Japanese , the Swahili , the Indonesian and Malaysian .

The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the English Language , with about 228,500 entries, 376,500 meanings , 415,500 synonyms , 26,400 antonyms and 57 000 archaic words, is an example of lexical richness of the Portuguese language. According to a survey conducted by the Brazilian Academy of Letters in English currently has about 356 000 lexical units. These units are dicionarizadas in Portuguese Language Orthographic Vocabulary . [99]

Most of the lexicon of Portuguese is derived from Latin, since Portuguese is a Romance language. However, because of the occupation moura the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages and the participation of Portugal in the Age of Discovery , adopted words from around the world. In the thirteenth century, for example, the lexicon of Portuguese had about 80% of its words with Latin origin and 20% with pre-Roman origin, German and Arabic . Currently, Portuguese boasts in his vocabulary terms from different languages ​​such as Provençal , the Dutch , the Hebrew , the Persian , the Quechua , the Chinese , the Turkish , the Japanese , the German and Russian , and languages ​​much closer like the English , the French , the Spanish and Italian . There has also been some influence from African languages ​​. [100] [101]

Very few Portuguese words can be traced traced back to the pre-Roman inhabitants of Portugal, which included the Galician , Lusitanian , Celtics and cónios . The Phoenicians and Carthaginians , briefly present in the region, also left few traces. In the fifth century, the Iberian Peninsula (the Hispania Roman) was conquered by Germanic Suevi and Visigoths . These people contributed some words to the Portuguese lexicon, mostly related to the war. Between the ninth and thirteenth centuries, Portuguese acquired about 800 words from Arabic , because the influence Moorish in Iberia . In the fifteenth century, the Portuguese maritime explorations led to the introduction of many loanwords from Asian languages. From the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries, because of the role of Portugal as intermediary in the Atlantic slave trade and the establishment of large Portuguese colonies in Angola , Mozambique and Brazil , the Portuguese suffered various influences of African and Amerindian languages. [100] [101]
Classification and related languages
Main articles: Differences between Spanish and Portuguese and differences between Galician and Portuguese
Inside the Royal Portuguese Reading founded in 1837 in Rio de Janeiro .

The Portuguese is an Indo-European language , the group of Romance languages ​​(or Latin), which are descended from Latin, belonging to the branch italics the Indo-European family. It is, compared to languages ​​of the Iberian peninsula and excluding Galician and Mirandese, have greater similarities with the Catalan vowel system, but there are also some similarities between the Portuguese and the central Pyrenean speak. How decisive factor in the evolution of Portuguese It is often considered the influence of a substrate Celtic. The nasal vowel phonemes establish a similarity with the branch Gallo-Romanic (especially with Old French) [102]

The Portuguese language is, in some respects, similar to the Spanish language , as with the Catalan language or Italian language , but is very different in its syntax in its phonology and its lexicon . A speaker of a language need some practice to understand a speaker of another. Moreover, differences in the vocabulary may complicate the understanding. However, this situation usually is configured using the current vocabulary of the language. Generally, there are English words of the same etymological origin (sometimes in disuse) than the other novels. Compare for example:

She always closes the window before dinner. (In Portuguese) (current language)

Ella cierra siempre la ventana before cenar. (Spanish)

She always closes the ventana before supper. (Using the same etymology)

While Portuguese speakers have a remarkable level of understanding of Spanish, Castilian speakers are usually more difficult to understand. This is because the Portuguese, although it sounds in common with the Spanish, also has particular sounds. In Portuguese, for example, there are nasal vowels and diphthongs (probably legacy of Celtic languages ​​[103] [104] ). Moreover, in European Portuguese there is a profound decrease in intensity of final syllables and final unstressed vowels tend to be deafened or even suppressed. This peculiarity results from the European variety called ‘reduction process vocalismo unstressed’.

Portuguese is naturally related to Catalan, Italian and all other languages ​​of Latin origin.

There are many languages ​​in contact derived from or influenced by the Portuguese, such as the Amulet Macanese from Macau . In Brazil, we highlight the lanc-patois derived from French and several Maroons , as cupópia the Quilombo Outback of Heels Pirapora , the state Brazilian from São Paulo .

Categories: Uncategorized

Comments are closed.