Simone de Beauvoir

Simone Lucie-Ernestine-Marie Bertrand de Beauvoir, better known as Simone de Beauvoir ( Paris , January 9 of 1908 – Paris , April 14 of 1986 ), was a writer , philosopher existentialist and feminist French .

She wrote novels, monographs on philosophy, politics, society, essays, biographies and an autobiography.

Early years
Family

Simone de Beauvoir was the oldest of the only two daughters of Georges Bertrand de Beauvoir, a full-time lawyer and amateur actor, and Françoise Brasseur, a young woman of Verdun . [1] Born in Paris as Simone (then a pompous name that his father loved)-Lucie (by his maternal grandmother)-Ernestine (by his paternal grandfather, Ernest-Narcisse)-Marie (the Virgin Mary) Bertrand de Beauvoir (child when she was advised to give his name as simply “Simone de Beauvoir “). [2] was an attractive child, but spoiled, stubborn to get what he wanted, and was the center of attention in her family. [3] The mother was not a great seamstress, and sewed the clothes were ill-fitting . [4] Growing up, Beauvoir had no friends except her sister Helene , who was two and a half years younger and who she was next. [5]

In 1909, Beauvoir’s maternal grandfather, Gustave Brasseur, Chairman of the Meuse Bank, went bankrupt, throwing his entire family into dishonor and poverty. Georges did not receive the dowry due to marry Françoise, [6] and the family had to move to a smaller apartment. [7] Georges de Beauvoir had to return to work, although the work has not pleased him. [8] The family struggled throughout childhood girls to keep their place in the high bourgeoisie , [9] and Georges often said, “You girls will never get married because you will have no dowry”. [10]

Beauvoir was always aware that his father hoped to have a son instead of two daughters. [11] He stated, “Simone thinks like a man!” what pleased her much, [12] and from a young age Beauvoir distinguished himself in his studies. Georges de Beauvoir passed his love of theater and literature to her daughter. [13] He was convinced that only the academic success could take the daughters of poverty. [10] (Hélène became a painter. [14] )
Education

She became an awkward teenager, completely devoted to books and learning, and chose to ignore sports because she was not athletic. [15] She and her sister were educated at the Institut Adeline Désir, [16] or Cour Désir, [17 ] a Catholic school for girls, which was despised by the intellectuals of the time. Catholic schools for girls were seen as places where young people learned one of two alternatives open to women: marriage or a convent . [17] His mother, who Beauvoir considered an outsider watching your every move, [18] attended classes with them, sitting behind them, as we expected that most mothers do. [17] There Beauvoir met his best friend, Elisabeth Le Coin (ZaZa in memories de Beauvoir). [19] Simone loved school and graduated in 1924 with “distinction “. [20]

At 15, Beauvoir had already decided it would be a writer. Jacques Champigneulle became his intellectual mentor and friend, that his mother hoped he would marry her. [21] Geraldine Paro (Gege) and Estepha Awdykovicz (Stepha) became her friends. [22]

After passing the exams of BA in mathematics and philosophy, studied mathematics at the Catholic Institute and literature and languages ​​at the Institute Sainte-Marie, and then philosophy at the University of Paris (Sorbonne). In 1929, when the Sorbonne, Beauvoir gave a presentation on Leibniz . There, she met many other young intellectuals, including Maurice Merleau-Ponty , [23] René Maheu [24] and Jean-Paul Sartre . While at the Sorbonne, Beauvoir Maheu gave the nickname that would follow him throughout life, Castor, given to her because of the strong work ethic of the animal. [24] In 1929, at age 21, Beauvoir became the youngest person Get the Agrégation in philosophy, and the ninth woman to obtain this degree. In the final exam, was second; Sartre, 24, was the first (he had failed his first exam). The jury Agrégation discussed the possibility of Sartre and Beauvoir to first place in the competition. In the end, gave Sartre. [25]

His friendship with Elizabeth Mabille (“Zaza”) was abruptly broken by the early death of Zaza. Simone narrated that episode of his life, later, in his first autobiography, Memoirs of a well-behaved girl, criticizing bourgeois values.
Sartre
Tomb of Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir.

Soon joined closely to the philosopher and his circle, creating a relationship between them controversial and fruitful, allowing them to match their individual freedoms with their lives together. Indeed, it is difficult to characterize them as a couple, because they lived long loving relationships with each others; Beauvoir, for example, had a strong relationship with the American writer Nelson Algren soon after the war, in the 1950s and remained another lasting relationship with Claude Lanzmann . In the summer, it was common Beauvoir and Sartre and Lanzmann traveling with his mistress Michelle Vian , ex-wife of writer Boris Vian .

She taught philosophy until 1943 in French schools from different locations such as Rouen and Marseille .

He died of pneumonia in Paris, aged 78. It is buried in the same grave Jean-Paul Sartre at Montparnasse Cemetery in Paris . [26]
Work

His works offer a highly revelatory vision of your life and your time.

In his first novel, The invited (1943), explored the existential dilemmas of freedom , action and individual responsibility, themes which also addressed in later novels like The Blood of Others ( 1944 ) and The Mandarins ( 1954 ), work for which received the Prix Goncourt and is considered his masterpiece.

The existentialist theories, according to which each person is responsible for themselves, also are introduced in a series of four autobiographical works, and Memoirs of a well-behaved girl ( 1958 ), we highlight the strength of Things ( 1963 ) All said and done and ( 1972 ).

Among his critical essays should highlight The Second Sex ( 1949 ), a deep analysis on the role of women in society; Old age ( 1970 ), about the aging process, which wove critical passionate about society’s attitude towards the elders; The ceremony and the goodbye ( 1981 ), which evoked the figure of his companion of many years, Sartre.
Books

1943: The guest (L’Invitee), romance
1944: Pyrrhus et Cinéas, testing
1945: The Blood of Others (Le Sang des autres), romance
1945: Les Bouches inutiles, play
1946: Tous les hommes sont mortels, romance
1947: Pour une morale de l’ambiguïté, testing
1948: L’Amérique au jour le jour
1949: The Second Sex , philosophical essay
1954: The mandarins (Les Mandarins), romance
1955: Privileges, testing
1957: La Longue Marche, testing
1958: Memoirs of a well-behaved girl (Mémoires d’une jeune fille rangée), autobiographical
1960: La Force de l’âge, autobiographical
1963: The force of things (La Force des choses)
1964: Une mort très douce, autobiographical
1966: Les Belles Images, romance
1967: La Femme rompue, novel
1970: Old age (La vieillesse) test
1972: All said and done (Tout compte fait), autobiographical
1979: Quand le prime spirituel, romance
1981: The ceremony of goodbye (La Cérémonie suivi des adieux of Entretiens avec Jean-Paul Sartre: août – septembre 1974), biography

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