The Mail Box

The mail box for posting letters is a publicly accessible container of a postal service that carries these consignments to the receiver and in a normally house mailbox or mailbox stores. In Germany, which maintains German Post AG with 108,000 most letterboxes (as of 2009). Mailboxes of other postal companies are usually represented only regionally and vary in design and color.

Various post-boxes in the Museum for Communication Berlin

Already in ancient messengers riding and container items, boxes or barrel-like pots were set up, in order to gather messages that should be conveyed to the arrival of the messenger or rider at the collection points.

In a post house in Hamburg in 1641 a total of 13 wooden boxes were installed. Your hole-like throw was labeled with different city names. The non -paid letters could thus be distributed from the senders to the different directions. [1] A mailbox in the Prussian post office was first mentioned in 1766, and he was in the hallway of the former Berlin Hofpostamtes (post corner King Street) “to the leisurely pace of correspondents and Facilitirung their correspondence ” [2] established. [3]

On the new 1816-based Berlin post house in the King and Spandauerstrasse the mailbox “at first seems not to have been transferred because of Berlin business circles, the desire has been expressed to make arrangements for Berlin after the example of the larger cities of France and England, that If the specific to mail letters not one located to the window or tables secretary (which this both as the Publico particularly at the two weekly lively post days Tuesdays and Saturdays extremely difficult is) survived, but at all times of the day – from morning to night – in an attached table next to the window or door with two narrow openings on the length of an ordinary letter and throw over them “. [4]

With the general introduction of mailboxes that were made ​​of wood, which began Prussian post in 1823 [3] due to a report of gutachtlichen Oberpostamts in Cologne in 1818. The reason for this lay in the French dominion of the left bank area from 1794 to 1814, there were in France since 1653 Mailbox in use. 1817 had come to consider whether the “so-called” mailbox, which in each of the main locations of the Rhine Province were present, not only at the post-houses, but also in other suitable places, nor of the French domination ago, were abolished again . When Oberpostamtszeitung Koblenz was the removal of the box, and only after lengthy discussions, it was possible to overcome the aversion to the device so far that the postmaster general John Frederick of Seegebarth approved not only the maintenance of the mailbox in Aachen, Dusseldorf and Jülich, but also the re-introduction in 1818 Koblenz prey presented. Even outside the Prussian administration could be the way, then the device does not quite make friends. For example, the expressed princely Thurn and Taxis’sche top Post Office Directorate in 1818 then, further states that “a separate mailbox for the unfrankirten (sic) never existed letters at Frankfurt’s post office.”: “Only after France Asked unfrankirte letters has existed for some time, a separate box, which has been but, as he was often abused by evil-minded people, also reinstated. ” [4]

At the request of the postmaster general Karl Ferdinand Friedrich von Nagler following fared Cabinet Order to him: [4]

“I approve your request of 13 inst., that the existing facility on the Rhine the mailbox for the convenience of the public generally made, but the arrangement, according to which only the letters in the post in the cases indicated by you Comtoir may be delivered, unchanged and if nevertheless Letters of this type are found in the mailbox, with this as well, as will the subject of Frankirung letters, which are found in the mailbox, proceed. ”

– Signed Frederick William : Potsdam, 18 October 1823

On 23 October 1823 was followed by a circular letter to all post offices, which stipulated that “letter box at the post-houses, and in large cities in other seemly places be attached to all parts of the monarchy, where the correspondence is a significant event in which the audience at any time of the abzusendenden in the mail letters may resign, so far as they unfrankirt and are not intended to States or to persons for whom letters only Franco can be assumed “it was still called the end:.” On the small towns where this facility not appear necessary for the public, the General Post Office is still inclined to allow such a box in the hallway of the post house for the convenience of the officials. [4] However, it must permit obtained, and the cost of the box must in this case by the official be denied, the profit of the ACCUMILL want this convenience. “the new facility came into being on 1 Januar 1824. The boxes were manufactured in two sizes, made of wood and opened from below. They were closed by a strong Schnepperschloss. In the description it says: “For in the opening no letters may fall from the sides, two leather side panels are attached, which are attached from the inside on the sides of the box and on the door with nails and in the middle have a knack of lying down on the inside of the box. The front of the box, in a ¼ inch indentation, the printed instructions on the use of glue is attached. The rest of the outer part of the box is painted with good white oil paint. “The system of the first widely introduced mailboxes hereafter generally resembled that of the boxes, which were also used end of the 1870s. That has been returned to its original simplicity, presented the collection to facilitate transactions and to simplify the operation, as experience has taught, with the same security as before,. Letter because the losses have increased since the resumption of the system means [5]

This first letter box of 1823 was a of painted with white oil paint wooden box that was opened below. On the front were printed on paper “Verhaltungs rules” attached. [6] An example of a Prussian blue wooden letter box in 1850: [3]

“In the letter-box are not set, but give the postal Bureau:

Letters to His Majesty the King and Her Majesty the Queen, the Princes and Princesses of the Royal House and to members of the royal houses of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen ;
those particular letters to foreign countries, which are wholly or partially the Frankirungszwange;
those letters which the sender wishes to frank Irish postage stamps or not by Franko envelopes, but by Baare slaying of Franko;
the recommandirten letters ;
with all the money declarierten Cassen statements , state papers , etc Preciosen complained letters, over which a certificate of posting is issued. ”

The reason for determining that letters that went to the royal house or the royal houses, were not allowed to be placed in the mailbox, is that before the Bavarian King Ludwig I, numerous begging and abusive letters were received, [3] after 1846, the dancer Lola Montez won the favor of the king. [7]

1830 was followed by the post of the Kingdom of Württemberg , shortly after which the Bavarian post . Here initially consisted security concerns externally mounted on buildings mailboxes, and therefore the post led deposit slots in post offices. Outdoor mailboxes were in Bavaria from 1845. In the boxes not only cleared letters were inserted as stamps were unknown. Only with the introduction of postage stamps ( Black ones on November 1, 1849 Kingdom of Bavaria ) boxes were set up everywhere in large numbers. [8]

In terms of equipment and material which boxes in Germany have undergone some change over time. The “wood-age” lasted into the 1850s, after a short transition times of trial in 1837 introduced the use of metal followed the ‘Bronze Age’, the period cast iron boxes with Bronze finish. 1866, the boxes were introduced in a pleasing shape with crown, eagle and Console, which found early use in all new parts of the country. The emptying was initially effected directly from the mailbox, then the number of the immediate emptying through trapdoor came to use bags of canvas and leather and plastic boxes of metal, cloth, wire mesh, wood and buff until 1874 its rights re-entered. The color scale was as follows: white, dark green (bronze) – in the intestines Urban were some 18 years ago. see also black boxes – and cornflower blue with gold since 1874. [5]

After 1860, the first post boxes were made ​​of cast iron produced in 1910 came the first steel on.

Number of mailboxes

1828 were in the Prussian postal territory in 88 locations along 112 post boxes available. In cities like Berlin, Cologne and Königsberg were ever two mailboxes in Aachen, Wroclaw, Dusseldorf, Elberfeld, Legnica, Potsdam and Szczecin ever set up a mailbox. Among the 153 sites with post offices, but without mailbox, included, among others: Arnsberg, Bielefeld, Bromberg, Crefeld, Dortmund, Memel, Münster, Trier. Postmaster general of Nagler suggested an increase in the mailboxes. As a result, for each Aachen and Koblenz, newly delivered two boxes of Elberfeld and Szczecin. With regard to all other places under the authorities concerned had denied the need of question. [5]

In 1856 there were in Prussia 4,809 mailboxes. 1873 had the imperial post 30,665 mailboxes in Bavaria were 5,543 and 3,063 placed in Württemberg (in the German Reich it together 39,271). Seven years later (1880) there were already 58,000; 1910, the number had risen to 153,000. By 1920 there were up to 40 different models.

The German Post AG operates in Germany around 108,000 mailboxes (as of 2007 and 2009). [10] For comparison: There was the time of the German Post Office ., 1978 in West Germany and West Berlin 108,832 and in 1984 109,512 mailboxes [11] 2003, there were still about 140,000 letterboxes. [12]

1871 different colors like white, gray, walnut, green, bronze and blue in different shades (for Prussia, Bavaria and Hesse) were found in the various post offices. From 1872, the boxes were the imperial post (which was responsible for the German Reich without Bavaria and Württemberg) in blue after the Prussian example. Württemberg joined later, after a bronze-green clay until then had been used. Bavaria led the color yellow for the mail boxes and kept that until the mid-1920s in [13] , and only after the boxes were blue. After the takeover of power by the National Socialists changed color 1934 red 1946 in all zones of occupation changed to yellow boxes or repainted and the inscription Empire Post. [9] [14] The German Federal Post Office and the German Post of the GDR remained at Yellow and brought their writings on. According to the Post, the German postal reform AG continues to use yellow boxes. Private postal companies put off by other colors.

The various shades of the Federal Post and Deutsche Post AG:

Types and production

The procurement of all mailboxes in the kingdom postal territory was the middle of the 1920s at the main post office in Berlin . Supplier was Franz coupler from Berlin-Weissensee . [15] This leaves the first attempts to unify the boxes used in Germany recognize and from 1930 so-called unit boxes were then (EB) from sheet steel developed.

After 1950 there were the first thoughts, plastic to be used for the manufacture of boxes, but by 1952 the old boxes were still in use, and with the country mailbox EB 9 led the German Federal Post a new box made ​​of sheet steel. 1955 also led the German Democratic Republic in the post-production steel sheet and reduced the unit mailbox series of nine to five models, 1968 there was the change in the type designations of the five unit mailboxes. It was changed to A through E. [16] A first test series of 50 boxes of plastic was placed in 1956 at the Federal Post Service, the serial production began in 1960. [8] For the testing and procurement that was post Technical Central Office (PTZ) in Darmstadt responsible. [17]

Individual used before the development of unit mailbox series models are only found in historic sites or used in a listed building locations. In the German Post Office Postal Service mailbox nine models were originally introduced to the “EB 9″ were standardized under the name “EB 1″. For reasons of restriction type standard series of boxes was initially restricted from nine to six, but then again extended by two models. [8]

Sheet steel boxes are pressed from sheet steel in the individual parts, welded together and post painted yellow. The plastic boxes are made ​​from post-yellow colored in the different parts of glass fiber reinforced polyester resin pressed. The prefabricated parts are glued, riveted or screwed. [8]

The mailbox types urban and rural mailbox are not so strictly construed since privatization. It may therefore happen that hang in local churches city mailboxes, some are even places where both types are installed.
emptying Gazette
Emptying time indicator – the red dot indicates the Sunday emptying.

The Gazette emptying the mailbox box shows all collection times (daily, late-night and eventual emptying) and the responsible mail center on. In addition, reference is made to the next mailbox with a still later emptying.

While there were boxes of imperial post that have been emptied ten times daily, many cases are still today only emptied once or twice a day, with the emptying so happens that most of the next day shipments reach the consignee in Germany.

Country mailboxes had formerly a device for recording of emptying signs that provided information about the frequency of emptying (eg, daily) and on the day and time of the next flush. The signs had to flush against each other to be replaced with the information of the next flush. [18]

Night flushes were marked by signs in red color, the previously recognized all night emptying boxes was from the German Post Office on 6 Set in January 1984. [19]

Today, a red dot indicates a Sunday emptying. In many mailboxes the week of the next flush is set after each emptying.

Column Mailbox

Column Mailbox, the upper part could be provided with a value signalman (within the gray frame)

Column mailboxes with mail slot on the front panel (left) and lateral (middle), right stamp machine

Car letterbox, the upper part was equipped with a value signalman or Postreklame be used

Column boxes are mounted on sunk into the ground socket. They are flush with the letter collection bag provided (post bags). The letter collection bag is constantly in the mailbox. It is replaced with a blank letter against the emptying collection bag. The boxes are equipped with the emptying indicator according PTZ Standard 1342.78 and marked with two side-mounted post horns. Mailboxes Type EB 1 CI ( value signalman ) can be equipped with two coin operated. They have a located on the front wall slot mail slot. Type EB 2 mailboxes have two side-mounted letter box slots. [8] column mailboxes are set up within cities where the post attack is so great that city mailboxes for receiving the shipments are not sufficient, for example, at post offices or today at post offices, railway stations and in busy places. [18]
City Mailbox

City mailbox with open flap drainage, including collection bag

With side flaps ball

With front flap (variant: blink ), bottom lock and rails for the collection bag

City mailboxes are attached to walls or support pillars. They are intended for emptying letter with gathering pocket and equipped to do so at the bottom with two rails for insertion of the letter collection bag and a bottom flap. After the letter collection bag is inserted into the rails attached with hinges to the box bottom flap is released by opening a lock and falls into a vertical position. The paper in the boxes broadcasts then slide into the letter collection bag. City boxes are equipped with the emptying indicator according PTZ Standard 1342.78 and characterized by two side-mounted post horns. Mailboxes Type EB 3 and EB 4 K have two side-mounted letter boxes, mail boxes, type EB 6 K over a mounted on the front wall letter box. [20]

Type EB 3 mailboxes are installed in cities only where the post attack is so great that IB 4 K for receiving the shipments are not enough and a pillar letter box can not be placed.
Mailboxes type IB 4 K were generally mounted in cities.
Mailboxes Type EB 6 K were mainly used in old town areas, in smaller cities and suburban areas, where the width of the pavement was so small that 4 K pedestrian could be hindered by the use of EB or the post attack was low. [18]

In the 1970s it was considered to reduce the number of types, and the EB 14 EB should replace 4 K and 6 K EB. [21]
Country Mailbox
Country Mailbox with side opening
Country Mailbox, here is the emptying via the mail box roof.

Country mailboxes are attached to walls or support pillars. When emptying the mail must be taken out of the box. Mailboxes Type EB and EB 7 K 8 K have this one side-mounted door, letter boxes, type EB 9 have a falling forward flap on the front wall. Type EB 7 K are equipped with the emptying indicator according PTZ Standard 1342.78, EB and EB 9 8 K with a plug-in device for emptying signs for PTZ Standard 1342.79. Mailboxes Type EB 7 K are characterized by two laterally located 9 Post-horns, Type EB and EB 8 K by a valid post horn on the front. Country Mailboxes feature a located on the front wall slot mail slot. [18] Country Mailboxes are used mainly in rural communities and peri-urban areas, when the emptying of hand and is not performed letter with gathering pocket. If the emptying performed no more than once daily, boxes of type IB 8 K, with only a small post mounted attack EB 9th Mailboxes EB 7 K are only used where more than is emptied once a day. [22]

For the country mailboxes from the 1970s, the emptying of hand by opening the lid (letter box roof) was provided. They are equipped with a removable and replaceable front panel, the front panel is taken Briefeinwurf and emptying indicator or the type “private letter to the countryside” EB 101 the insert indicator on, also it has an option to list all the collection times and to place advertising texts (for example: zip code advertising ) or the name badge at the “office boxes in the country”. The types of EB 17 (replacement for EB EB 7 K and 6 K) and 18 (for EB and EB 9 8 K) have two side-mounted post horns. 17 EB receive an emptying indicator, EB 18 a turntable. The turntable is equipped with appropriate identification at the same time the deposit indicator at the “office boxes in the country” EB 101 (for EB 100 K), these were fitted with special locks with major closures. [22]
local-remote mailbox
Local-remote mailbox from Munich: “PLZ 80000-81999″ / “other ZIP”
Two columns mailbox in Munich with the selection for “ZIP 80000-81999″ and “other ZIP”

These boxes are attached to walls or support pillars. They are equipped with two adjacent postboxes that are respectively provided for the insertion of local or remote broadcasts and programs specially marked as such. In the boxes there is a partition. Emptying the collection bag is effected with a letter which is provided with a partition. They are equipped with an indicator emptying after PTZ Standard 1342.78 and characterized by post horns.

Already at the turn of the century, 19 on the 20th Century were tested in Berlin “Double Mailbox”. [23] Initially, two double mailbox at Central Post Office ( Leipziger Strasse mounted and wall street) and longer time were tested in the operation, since the mid 1902 yet another case of this kind, has been primarily set up as a mail house mailbox at post offices so that nine pieces were in use. [24] To better distinguish the department for local letters had a yellow and remote letters painted blue (Editor’s note:. Mostly, the information in the DVZ contradict this one is also from the reverse color scheme the speech), also carried the ball attached to the front flap the inscriptions “for the city” and “Move out”. [25] The missorts have amounted to 1902, between 3 and 17% on average about 9%. The post nevertheless saw a satisfactory result (for comparison: in the City of London has after the last annual report of the former British Postmaster General, the number of incorrectly inserted broadcast 10%, respectively). The lowest percentage of such inlaid letters has an almost unused exclusively of single Anlieferern street letter box, while the percentage contained in the in lively business area, strong undrawn mailbox is much higher. [26] Another test was from 1 April 1903 12 formed at the post office in Berlin in a special room street emptying district to be used exclusively in the two-part mailbox. This district encompasses the five letter box at homes Zimmerstraße 1, 16/17, 81a, 90/91 and Wilhelmstrasse 92/93. The newly formed double mailbox where the mail slot were attached to the front, have two emptying devices; separate collection bags to be emptied for their each department uses. For each department a special emptying indicator was attached with a hub in order to maintain the ability to determine different collection times for local and long distance shipments in appropriate cases. [27] A 1905 made ​​census showed that among 1662 shipments for by the Department Local letters were admitted to 486 units or 29.2% in 2361 and shipments to outside broadcasts from the Department of “outside” 323 or 13.7% were local shipments. Thus breaking the hoped-for benefits of fast processing of correspondence and the shortening of deadlines, it resulted in the opposite of the wrong sort or inconveniences for the operation. Under these circumstances, a further continuation of the experiments, a significant success was not to be expected, the two-part letter box were withdrawn at a suitable opportunity and replaced by ordinary mail box type. [28]

The re-use occurred only after the two World Wars in 1969 in Osnabrück , and in 1972 in West Berlin (“1000 Berlin (West)” and “Other Places”) until the mid-1970s. [21] [29] [30] already in 1956 there were only at traffic hot spots in major cities isolated local-remote mailboxes. [31] In 1972, a plastic model (EB 13).

In East Berlin in 1977 two pillars made ​​of sheet steel boxes were used for this purpose. The case for long-distance traffic was below the indicator emptying a 40 mm wide red stripe that an equally wide green strip in local transport. [32]

In the former island city of West Berlin, the use was very helpful as it 31 to March 1991 a reduced postage for postcards and letters “in the local traffic”, ie within West Berlin and to the economic, monetary and social union on 1 July 1990 for the whole of Berlin announced. This postage step was in the Federal Republic as early as 1 Been abolished in March 1963.

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