Zurich

Zurich ( Swiss German Zuri, French Zurich, Italian Zurigo, Romansh Turitg ? / i ) is the largest city of Switzerland and capital of the canton of the same . The city has about 394,000 inhabitants. The surroundings is densely populated, so that the agglomeration of Zurich about 1.19 million in the metropolitan region of Zurich about 1.83 million people. [4]

Zurich is the most important economic, scientific and social center of Switzerland. The city lies in the eastern Swiss Plateau, on the Limmat at the outflow of Lake Zurich . Its inhabitants are called Zurich (Zurich city and the differentiation with the other inhabitants of the canton). Dating back to the Roman stronghold Turicum resulting Zurich in 1262 was a free imperial city in 1351 and a member of the Confederation . The city of the reformer Ulrich Zwingli experienced in the industrial age, their rise to economic capital of Switzerland. Alluding to the geographical and historical circumstances and Zurich is sometimes informally referred to as the “Limmatstadt” or the “Zwingli city.”

For years, Zurich is one of the cities with the highest quality of life [5] and the highest cost of living at the same time [6] [7] listed. Since 2012, Zurich is the most expensive city in the world, followed by Tokyo and Geneva . [8]

With its central station , the largest station in Switzerland, and the airport , the city of Zurich is a continental transportation hub and thanks to the local big banks (including UBS and Credit Suisse ) and insurance ( Zurich Insurance Group and Swiss Re ), an international financial center and the largest financial center Switzerland, followed by Geneva and Lugano . Despite the relatively small population Zurich is therefore to the world cities counted. Above average number of media companies, including the Swiss television , have their headquarters here, its location on Lake Zurich , its well-preserved medieval center and a multi-cultural activities and nightlife , it is also a center of Swiss tourism.

Geography

Zurich is located at 408 m above sea level. M. on the lower (northern) end of Lake Zurich, between the heights of Uetliberg in the West and Zurich mountain in the east. The Old Town stretches on both sides of the Limmat river, which flows out of the lake here, initially flows northward and then gradually turning into a curve to the west. Even today, the western boundary of the former is based on the city hill trench good to see. This artificial watercourses has been used for the construction of the third fortress in the 17th and 18 Century created. At that time, some of the water was derived from the lake and back out in a ditch outside the bastions and ramparts back to Limmat River. The largest part of this hill trench is still preserved, but the water is not now directly in the Limmat river, but the main railway station in the Sihl conducted. When Platzspitzpark little below the old town Sihl flows as the most important tributary of the River Limmat.
Topography

The municipality of Zurich has an area of ​​91.88 km ², of which 4.1 km ² accounts for Zurich. It comprises a section of the northern Swiss Plateau . The Limmat is the most important natural and settlement area of Zurich. It is oriented in the southeast-northwest direction, with the flat valley floor having a width of two to three kilometers. The partially channeled and straightened Limmat does not flow like about the middle of the valley, but always along the right (northeast) side of the valley. With 392 meters above sea level. M. is achieved on the Limmat Oberengstringen at the lowest point of the municipality.

On its west side the Limmat valley is from the wooded heights of the Albis chain , the Uetliberg and the Buechhogers flanked on which runs the western boundary of the municipality. The Uetliberg mountain town, together with 869 m above sea level. M. the highest elevation of the surrounding area. Its summit is the Uetlibergbahn be easily achieved. From the platform of the observation tower Uetliberg offers a majestic panoramic views of the city and the lake, and with a clear view to the Alps . Ground to the south of the municipality extends into the lower Sihl valley .

North-east of the Limmat valley includes a range of hills, which the watershed between the Limmat and the Glatt marked. From northwest to southeast, the height of the mostly wooded takes hilltops to: Hönggerberg (. 541 m asl), Käferberg (with Waidberg ., 571 m asl), Zurich Mountain (. 676 m asl) and Adlisberg (701 m ü. M.). Between the mountain and the beetle Zurich mountain with the completely built-up saddle of milk Bucks (about 470 m above sea level). an important transition from the Limmat-ins Glattalbahn.

The northernmost part of the municipality extends to the plain of Glattal and in the valley, which the connection between the Glatt Valley and the Furttalstrasse manufactures. Also a part of the lake Cats (nature reserve) and the Büsisee, both by the Katzenbach to Glatt be drained belong to the city.
Geology

In geological terms Zurich is located in the Molasse basin in the Swiss Plateau. The pool was in the course of the Tertiary with the detritus of the resulting Alps filled with the sediments can be divided into different layers. Deposits under marine conditions Meeresmolasse as such under fluvial conditions referred to as Freshwater Molasse.

Of importance in the area of ​​Zurich is the Upper Freshwater Molasse, deposited in the period about 16 million years ago through 5. It consists of a mixed layer of hard sandstone benches and soft marl layers together and occurs especially on Uetliberg and on the hills east of the city to light. By means of a deep hole would be found in the underground of Zurich a more than 1000 m thick layer of Molasseablagerungen before the sediments of the Jurassic period would encounter.

The ultimate scenic overprint received the region of Zurich by the foray of the Rhine-Lintharena glacier during the various ice ages . By the existing glacier valleys new valleys were already created and deepened and broadened. The Limmat and the Glatt Valley are with gravel filled the ice age and with other sediments of the postglacial. Even the most visible are the tracks of the Würm glaciation. During the so-called stage of Zurich (about 20,000 years ago) was the moraine , which concludes the Lake Zurich in the north. It is marked by the ridge between the lake and the Sihl valley, the height at the Lindenhof in the old town and by the Burgholzli while the Sihl valley took up the meltwater stream on the edge of the glacier.
Climate

Zurich is located in the temperate climate zone . Formative for the climate of Zurich are on the one hand, the winds from westerly directions, which often precipitate introduce, on the other hand, the Bise (east or north-east wind), which is usually associated with high pressure levels, but in all seasons brings cooler weather phases would be expected than in the middle. The important valleys in the Alps and the Alpine foothills hair is normally no special climatic impact on Zurich.

The annual mean temperature at the measuring station of the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology (MeteoSwiss), Zurich (to 556 m above sea level. M. on the hillside of Zurich Mount and thus 150 m above the level of the city center) is 8.5 ° C, in January -0.5 ° C, the coldest and 17.6 ° C, the warmest month mean temperatures are measured in July. In the middle are here 88 frost days , and 26 ice days expected. days of summer are in the 30 year average, while usually three hot days are recorded. These values ​​are relatively low compared to other means land stations, which can be explained due to the altitude of the station. In the Limmat valley more summer days and clear hot days can be expected throughout the year. The station Zurich has an average of 1482 sunshine hours per year. The 1136 mm of rainfall over the whole year, and in the summer months and especially during the three summer months due to the convective precipitation amounts measured higher than in winter.

City area

The Limmat valley is almost completely built over (residential and industrial areas, commercial zones). Are also cultivated close the sun-exposed and preferred residential locations on the mountain and at the Zurich Waidberg and the lower slope sections on the western side of the valley on Uetliberg. About the Milchbuck the development reaches into the Glatt Valley and the adjacent areas.

To the green lungs of the city include the vast forest areas of Adlisberg, Zurich mountain, mountain beetle, Hönggerberg and Uetliberg. Major parks are also located along the lakeshore (Horn and Zurich Enge). Furthermore, the built-up area is broken up by parks and gardens. Larger contiguous agricultural lands are in the range of Affoltern and Seebach.

Of the total area of ​​the city of Zurich (without Seeanteil) were in the 1996 survey 45.4% settlements, industry and commerce, 15.5% of the market, 26.5% of the forest, 11% agriculture and 1.2% waters attributed. Of the excreted as a construction zone area in 2004 about 93% was overbuilt.

Boroughs
Districts of the city of Zurich

The original city of Zurich (before 1893) included only the area of ​​today’s Old Town. With two large urban expansions in 1893 and 1934 numerous surrounding villages were incorporated, in the course of the 19th Century were increasingly grown together. Today Zurich city itself is composed of 12 city districts, which are numbered from 1 to 12 and include two to four quarters:

District 1 , comprising the old town and thus the original municipality of Zurich (to 1893)
District 2 on the western shore of Lake Zurich, including narrow , Wollishofen and Leimbach (1893 incorporated)
District 3 between the Limmat and Sihl Uetliberg, includes Wiedikon (incorporated in 1893)
District 4 in the valley between Sihl, railway tracks and Wiedikon, includes part of the former municipality Aussersihl (incorporated in 1893)
District 5 in the valley between Limmat and Sihl train tracks, includes the industrial area, which was part of the former municipality in 1893 and incorporated Aussersihl
District 6 on the slopes of Mount Zurich, comprises upper Rhinestone and Rhinestone Under (1893 incorporated)
District 7 on the slopes of Mount Zurich and Adlisberg includes Fluntern , Hottingen and Hirslanden (1893 incorporated) and Witikon (1934 incorporated)
District 8 on the eastern shore of Lake Zurich, includes Riesbachstrasse (1893 incorporated)
District 9 between the Limmat to the north and Buechhoger and Uetliberg to the south, includes Altstetten and Albisrieden (incorporated in 1934)
Circle 10 on the south side of the Limmat right Hönggerberg and Käferberg includes Wipkingen (1893 incorporated) and Hongg (1934 incorporated)
District 11 in the plane north of Hönggerberg and Käferberg between Glattalbahn and Katzensee includes Affoltern , Oerlikon and Seebach (incorporated 1934)
District 12 in the Glatt Valley at the northern foot of the mountain Zurich, includes Schwamendingenstrasse (incorporated in 1934)

In general, the boundaries of the cities are congruent with the existing municipal boundaries before 1893. However, several municipalities were merged into either a circle or divided in the case of Aussersihl a municipality into two groups depending on their size. There were also several minor border adjustments over time.
See also: Districts of the City of Zurich
neighboring communities

The following municipalities border the city of Zurich: Regensdorf , Zürich , Glattbrugg and Wallisellen in the north, Dübendorf , Fällanden and Maur in the east, Zollikon , Kilchberg (ZH) , and COL ClassicsOnline the south and Stallikon , Uitikon , streaks and Oberengstringen in the West.

History
Zurich on the Murerplan of 1576
→ Main article: History of Zurich
Early History and Medieval

In contrast to most other major Swiss cities Zurich rose early Middle Ages to the rank of a city. In Turicum although there was in Roman times a customs station and a fort , but the associated settlement can not yet be described as a city. The early medieval Alemannic Zurich was closely linked to the Duchy of Swabia and two major spiritual foundations of the German kings, the Great Cathedral and the Cathedral woman that the cult of the patron saints Felix and Regula were consecrated. After the collapse of central authority in the duchy of Swabia and the extinction of Zähringerplatz 1262 Zurich could be the status of imperial immediacy secure. The title of imperial city meant the de facto independence of the city. However, de jure Zurich only dissolved in 1648 by the supremacy of the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.

Inside the fortunes of Zurich since the guild revolution were mayor Rudolf Brun in 1336 by the urban aristocracy and the artisan associations ( guilds ) managed jointly ( Brun guild constitution ). 1351 to Zurich, where to secure its independence from the emerging South German noble family of the Hapsburgs of the Swiss Confederation , and, together with the Berne suburb of this confederation. Probably the most important contribution to date about world history was the Zurich Reformation of Huldrych Zwingli . Under his spiritual leadership was on the Limmat Zurich since 1519 to the Reformed Rome. Also, the Anabaptist movement took its starting point in Zurich. At the time of the witch hunts were in Zurich from 1487 to 1701 witch trials conducted against 79 people. The witch trial in 1701 eight people were Wasterkingen convicted for alleged witchcraft. Government President Markus Notter and Church Council President Ruedi Reich condemned 2001, these judicial murders.
18 and 19 Century
Zurich and its suburbs in 1800
View of Zurich in 1884

In their environs conquered and acquired Zurich significant territories that were the city until 1798, subordinate politically. With the fall of the free Republic of the Zurich city after the French invasion of Switzerland, the city went along with the former subjects on land in the new canton of Zurich. In the early 19th Century it was indeed a restoration of urban dominance in Canton, but was short-lived. Zurich has since now the capital of the eponymous canton of Zurich .

The rise of Zurich Switzerland for the commercial center began with the textile industry in the 18th and 19 Century. Under the political and economic leadership of the Liberals , especially of Alfred Escher , the leading role of Zurich from 1846 through the creation of numerous banks and insurance companies was also extended to the financial and service sectors. Since the demise of the Zurich industry in the postwar period, the importance of this sector has increased.

In the second half of the 19th Began a century up to the 1970-year period of construction boom, the Zurich from a small town to the big city with all its problems grow left. The rapid growth was limited at first to a renovation and construction of the center, but also increasingly recognized the surrounding rural communities. Incorporation in two waves in 1893 and 1934, 20 rural communities with the old municipality were summarized. However, the establishment of a “center of Zurich» failed until now. Indeed, while originally the financial strength of the cash-strapped city or its suburbs were the voluntary motor city extensions, today the remaining suburbs are more financially better off than the city. This is reflected particularly in the tax rates.
The incorporation of the Zurich suburbs in 1894 and 1934
20 Century

In the 20th Century was politically Zurich under the spell of the labor movement. Even before the general strike 1918, the confrontation between the bourgeoisie and the working class was exceptionally hard since Zurich large industrial companies with thousands of workers had, but was also a stronghold of the haute bourgeoisie in Zurich. In the inter-war period was the Red Zurich to a figurehead for the governability of social democracy. Nevertheless, just as in 1939, the Zurich Landi became known national exhibition has become a symbol for the cohesion and the will to resist of Switzerland in the sign of spiritual defense against Hitler Germany. Finally, the Mayor of Zurich in 1943 Ernst Nobs elected as the first Social Democrat to the Federal Council. In the postwar period remained Zurich reservoirs and stage for protest movements, as in 1968 at the Globe riots and 1980 for the youth riots . Today is the first May in Zurich annually by clashes of autonomous ” black block “in with the police.

A problem of the city was long the open drug scene. In the mid-1980s was Platzspitzpark known worldwide as Needlepark. He was born on 5 Evicted in February 1992 and closed off, then the drug scene shifted to the disused Letten station.

The site of the disused station Latvians offered from 1992, the setting for the largest open drug scene in Europe. Several thousand drug addicts from home and abroad are worried or lived here their material. Hundreds of police officers participated frequently in the presence of camera crews raids before and tried to dry up the market. These attempts were unsuccessful, and so the Latvians was on 14 In February 1995 stopped by the police. Foreign drug addicts were largely returned to their communities of origin, respectively residence communities, forcibly expelled foreign addicts. The remnants of the drug scene shifted increasingly to the area along the long road. To defuse the situation, thereby greatly contributed to the attempt by the state distribution of heroin, so do not immediately formed a new scene. Today, the state, medically controlling drug delivery enshrined in law and approved by the people in a referendum.

The long road is a center of Zurich’s nightlife. Since the dissolution of the open drug scenes the quarter was the millennium also go to the center of the drug trade. The crime rate in Langstrassenquartier though is still relatively high, but the situation improved thanks to various public projects. Today the situation has stabilized and the area has become a permanent fixture in the culture and nightlife of Zurich. As before, however, the city is attracting drug users from the neighboring cantons.
present
Zurich and Limmat in the old town hall bridge with (from left) Stork Hotel, home to the sword , town hall and house for dogs

In the 1980s, Zurich was imprisoned because of drug problems in a vicious circle between the demand for more office space in the city center, the city and escape the threat of urban decay of entire city districts. Measures to increase the attractiveness of downtown as the liberation movement of the Lower Village could not prevent the city of Zurich was always unattractive. Changes seemed impossible – In 1986, the former building director Ursula Koch with her ​​famous phrase “Zurich is built” the perspectives of policy in relation to the further future Zurich expression. It was not until the mid-1990s, the blockade could be overcome, first by a new building and zoning regulations in 1996 and the liberalization of hospitality Act 1997. The latter in particular seemed enormously stimulating effect on Zürich’s nightlife and shoot left countless new and innovative restaurants, bars and nightclubs from the ground in no time. 1998 could under the new Planning Director Elmar Ledergerber (from 2002 to April 2009 Mayor) for years has been slow coming redesign of brownfield sites in Zurich West and Oerlikon are accelerated, so that to this day been able to develop at both locations trendy and modern new urban districts. In the tourism sector Zurich occurred in the 2000s with the addition of “Downtown Switzerland”. [9] [10]
See also: territorial development of Zurich and history of the canton of Zurich

The silver and blue diagonally split crest was created in the 14th Century and was derived from the blue-white striped banners urban, probably in the 13th Century appear for the first time, as Zurich for free imperial city was. To distinguish from the canton of Zurich , which uses the same coat of arms, shield the city from a mural crown is crowned. The emblem of the city of Zurich, the “Zürileu” is the lion. Traditionally, the sign in the full coat of arms of two lions standing is held in the Heraldry is a sign of courage, strength, courage and bravery.
Coat of arms of Zurich city

Today, the Canton of Zurich and the city to use the same emblem. While the full coat of arms of the canton of Zurich a lion holding a sword on the left side (the sword as a symbol of the war and the state power) and a lion with a palm frond on the right side (the palm fronds as a peace symbol shows) are on the full coat of arms City coat of arms presented as vehicle two stylized lions. In addition, above the coat of arms with a mural crown. This is used since the end of 2005 as a unified logo for all municipal offices (subject to a few exceptions).
Population
Population growth in the city of Zurich since 1836

Officially live in the city of 394’012 people (as of end of December 2012). [2] 31.3% of the reported population in Zurich, which are 123’157 people, do not have a Swiss passport Among the foreigners have people from Germany the largest share (31’513, 8%), followed by nationals of Italy (13,227, 3.4%), Portugal (8’407, 2.1%) and Serbia (7’280, Montenegro, including Kosovo, 1 , 9%). [2]
Origin / population [11] 2000 2010
Switzerland Switzerland 70.80% 69.55%
Canton of Zurich Canton of Zurich 36.52% 36.48%
Coat Zurich matt.svg Zurich city 27.91% [12] 28.03%
European Union EU-27 14.77% 19.40%
Canton of Zurich Canton of Zurich city without 8.61% 8.44% [13]
Germany Germany 3.38% 7.75%
Canton of Bern Canton of Bern 6.44% 6.08% [14]
Canton of St. Gallen Canton of St. Gallen 4.40% 4.27%
Canton of Aargau Canton of Aargau 4.32% 4.11%
Italy Italy 4.53% 3.40%

In Zurich, many people had moved from other cantons life (reported: 41% of the urban population, 60% of the Swiss). [4] Due to local and regional differences in tax rates is partial attempt to circumvent the application of the urban area.

In the agglomeration of Zurich 1.19 million people currently live, in the Zurich metropolitan area (including Winterthur , Baden , Brugg , Schaffhausen , Frauenfeld , Uster / Wetzikon , Rapperswil-Jona and train ), there are approximately 1.83 million. [15]
Languages

The official official and common language is the Swiss equivalent of the standard German language , which (because it is mostly used only in correspondence) is also known as High German (as in Germany) or writing German. This is used in newspapers and magazines, in the literature, websites and, in principle, all correspondence. But (except for local stations) at universities, schools, theaters, news programs, talk shows and similar programs on radio and television and for the most part in official events, official institutions (eg Parliament debates, courts) used in spoken form.
In everyday life is mainly the local variant of one of many Swiss German dialects , namely Zurich German , spoken. However, to assume that because of the national importance of the Zurich city more than half of people living or working here are not from the Swiss canton of Zurich and other Swiss therefore speak a dialect or at least have learned in their childhood.
Thus the women of Zurich and the Zurich know a special form of bilingualism, which applies to the entire German Switzerland, and what linguistics diglossia calls.

According to the 2010 census (multiple answers were possible) 69.3% speak to the city’s home Swiss German , 22.7% speak High German (which variant is not made ​​clear). Has significantly increased since the penultimate census in 2000, the use of English in the private sector at home: 8.8%. Italian follows with 7.1%, French 4.5%, Serbo-Croatian 4.1%, Spanish 3.9%, Portuguese 3.1%, Albanian 2.3%. There can therefore be no surprise that 20% of the inhabitants of Zurich two or more languages ​​are spoken at home.

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